25.10.2021

# Political Papers

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Morrow, David R.; Nicholson, Simon (2021): Sustainable Carbon Removal

Morrow, David R.; Nicholson, Simon (2021): Sustainable Carbon Removal. American University, School of International Service.

"Analyzing carbon removal at different levels can illuminate environmental, social, and economic risks and opportunities. Levels of analysis range from broad technological categories, like reforestation, to specific projects, like Climeworks’ Orca direct air capture project in Iceland. Most analyses have focused on broad technological categories, but more fine-grained analyses are crucial for delivering actionable advice. Finding metrics for environmental, social, and economic impacts is vital for quantifying positive and negative impacts and comparing approaches. One possibility is to use the indicators for the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, which are politically negotiated, internationally accepted metrics of environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Determining which approaches are most sustainable requires balancing different positive and negative impacts that may not be easily comparable. There are several ways to do this, ranging from intuitive judgments to multicriteria decision analysis, although any decisions about which approaches are most sustainable are ultimately political decisions. In summary, to develop sustainable carbon removal, we need to identify sustainability metrics, such as the indicators behind the Sustainable Development Goals; apply those metrics at different levels of analysis; and develop strategies for determining which approaches strike the right balance between environmental, social, and economic goals."

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20.10.2021

# Political Papers

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HM Government (2021): Net Zero Strategy: Build Back Greener

HM Government (2021): Net Zero Strategy: Build Back Greener. UK. Available online at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1026655/net-zero-strategy.pdf.

"Last year, the Prime Minister set out his 10 point plan for a green industrial revolution, laying the foundations for a green economic recovery from the impact of COVID-19 with the UK at the forefront of the growing global green economy. This strategy builds on that approach to keep us on track for UK carbon budgets, our 2030 Nationally Determined Contribution, and net zero by 2050. It includes: our decarbonisation pathways to net zero by 2050, including illustrative scenarios; policies and proposals to reduce emissions for each sector; cross-cutting action to support the transition. The government response to the 2021 Committee on Climate Change (CCC) progress report to Parliament in reducing UK emissions is published alongside this strategy. It will set out our progress over the last 12 months and addresses the latest CCC recommendations. The Net Zero Strategy will be submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as the UK’s second Long-Term Low Greenhouse Gas Emission Development Strategy under the Paris Agreement."

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20.10.2021

# Political Papers

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HM Government (2021): Greenhouse Gas Removals. Summary of Responses to the Call for Evidence

HM Government (2021): Greenhouse Gas Removals. Summary of Responses to the Call for Evidence. UK. Available online at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1026494/ggr-cfe-summary-of-responses.pdf.

"Along with our wider research, analysis, and stakeholder engagement, the evidence and views we received through the call for evidence have been used to inform the development of government policy on GGRs.[...] This summary of responses is part of a wider package of policy documents on GGRs published in conjunction with the net zero strategy, which also includes: an updated assessment of GGR methods and their potential deployment in the UK, conducted for BEIS by Element Energy and the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; the findings of a study on potential commercial frameworks for first-of-a-kind Power BECCS, conducted for BEIS by Element Energy and Vivid Economics; the final report of the Task and Finish Group on GGR MRV."

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20.10.2021

# Political Papers

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University of York (2021): Geoengineering: A climate of uncertainty. Youth guide and policy brief on geoengineering

University of York (2021): Geoengineering: A climate of uncertainty. Youth guide and policy brief on geoengineering. Available online at https://www.york.ac.uk/media/educationalstudies/documents/research/uyseg/best/Geoengineering%20-%20a%20climate%20of%20uncertainty.pdf.

"The purpose of this guide is to introduce key ideas and questions about geoengineering in order to spark a conversation about intervention in the Earth's climate system in the context of the range of possible responses to the climate crisis. It has been written by young people, for young people."

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18.10.2021

# Political Papers

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Marsters, Lizzie; et al. (2021): Nature-based Solutions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Financing Mechanisms for Regional Replication (Inter-American Development Bank)

Marsters, Lizzie; Morales, Gabriela; Ozment, Suzanne; Silva Paredes, Mariana; Watson, Gregory; Netto, Maria; Frisari, Giovanni Leo (2021): Nature-based Solutions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Financing Mechanisms for Regional Replication: Inter-American Development Bank.

"Innovative financing models are emerging globally to advance nature-based solutions (NBS) that can cost-effectively enhance infrastructure performance, meet Sustainable Development Goals, and mitigate the negative impacts of climate change. Despite the potential for NBS to generate attractive returns and provide significant cost-savings, these financing models remain underutilized. Consequently, NBS are not achieving their full potential and a tranche of pent up green capital is sidelined. This report highlights five proven NBS financing strategies that leverage private finance: green bonds, blended market-rate and concessional loans, land-based financing strategies, insurance policies, and endowments. This report also outlines current barriers to the successful scaling of these financing strategies in Latin America and the Caribbean and identifies the approaches and enabling conditions needed to overcome them."

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11.10.2021

# Political Papers

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Luderer, Gunnar; et al. (2021): Ariadne Report: Germany on its way to net zero 2045 (German)

Luderer, Gunnar; Kost, Christoph; Sörgel, Doninika (Eds.) (2021): Ariadne Report: Deutschland auf dem Weg zur Klimaneutralität 2045. Szenarien und Pfade im Modellvergleich. Kopernikus-Projekt Ariadne. Potsdam. Available online at https://ariadneprojekt.de/publikation/deutschland-auf-dem-weg-zur-klimaneutralitat-2045-szenarienreport/.

German report on possible pathways to net zero in Germany. 

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10.10.2021

# Political Papers

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Arens, Christof (Ed.) (2021): Ensuring longterm ambition. Paris-proofing of baseline setting as a means for alignment with the Paris Agreement’s long-term objectives (Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy)

Arens, Christof (Ed.) (2021): Ensuring longterm ambition. Paris-proofing of baseline setting as a means for alignment with the Paris Agreement’s long-term objectives. Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy. Wuppertal (Carbon Mechanisms Review, Vol. 9, No. 3). Available online at https://www.carbon-mechanisms.de/fileadmin/media/dokumente/Publikationen/CMR/CMR_03_2021_web_final.pdf.

"In this issue of the CMR, we take an in-depth look at the baselines discussion, starting with an analysis of the experience gained in the different carbon market arenas so far. We also present a Party perspective on the negotiation process and possible solutions for the associated agenda items. The cover feature is supplemented by a new proposal from the research community on how to technically solve baseline setting under the new Paris Agreement regime. Also in this issue, we look at how implementation of Article 6 activities can be promoted and assess actual capacity building needs. Finally, we explore the aviation sector and analyse the role of carbon markets in regulating GHG emissions from aviation as described in the European Commission’s recent “Fit for 55” proposal."

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06.10.2021

# Political Papers

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Elkerbout, Milan; Bryhn, Julie (2021): Setting the context for an EU policy framework for negative emissions. CEPS

Elkerbout, Milan; Bryhn, Julie (2021): Setting the context for an EU policy framework for negative emissions. CEPS (CEPS Policy Insights, 2021-12). Available online at https://www.ceps.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/PI2021-12_EU-policy-framework-for-negative-emissions.pdf.

"Negative emissions – the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere – will be needed in the EU and globally to reach long-term climate targets. This scoping paper explores the different concepts relevant to discussing negative emissions in an EU policy context, starting with the scientific basis described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The paper then discusses different ways negative emissions technologies can be categorised, and the potential trade-offs associated with their deployment. Finally, some political considerations for negative emissions policy are discussed. The paper will form the basis for an upcoming policy paper on how the EU should approach negative emissions in its climate policy framework."

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27.09.2021

# Political Papers

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UNEP (2021): The Net in Net Zero: The role of negative emissions in achieving climate alignment for asset owners

UNEP (2021): The Net in Net Zero: The role of negative emissions in achieving climate alignment for asset owners. Available online at https://www.unepfi.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/AOA_Negative-Emissions.pdf.

"This Net-Zero Asset Owner Alliance position paper presents the basis for scaling carbon dioxide removal (CDR) solutions, including a mix of land-based carbon sinks, nature-based solutions and technological carbon removal approaches, which are essential for alignment to a 1.5°C pathway."

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23.09.2021

# Political Papers

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Möllersten, Kenneth; et al. (2021): Policies for the promotion of BECCS in the Nordic countries. Nordic Council of Ministers

Möllersten, Kenneth; Zetterberg, Lars; Nielsen, Tobias; Torvanger, Asbjörn; Siikavirta, Hanne; Kujanpää, Lauri; Hannula, Ilkka (2021): Policies for the promotion of BECCS in the Nordic countries. Nordic Council of Ministers. Copenhagen. Available online at https://pub.norden.org/temanord2021-538/temanord2021-538.pdf.

"This report aims to analyse barriers that slow down the development and deployment of bioenergy with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (BECCS) in the Nordic countries and to propose appropriate initiatives on the Nordic level that can support BECCS development and deployment."

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