20.09.2021

# Media

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Video: CNBC: Why Bill Gates Is Funding Solar Geoengineering Research

"Fires burning across the Amazon rainforest have renewed the debate about solutions to climate change. Bill Gates is backing the first high-altitude experiment of one radical approach called solar geoengineering. It's meant to mimic the effects of a giant volcanic eruption. Thousands of planes would fly at high altitudes, spraying millions of tons of particles around the planet to create a massive chemical cloud that would cool the surface. [...] The technology is not far from being ready and it's affordable, but it could cause massive changes in regional weather patterns and eradicate blue sky. [...]Watch the video to learn how it would work and hear the debate around the ethics and efficacy of solar geoengineering."

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10.09.2021

# New Publications

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Bonou, Frederic; et al. (2021): Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols impacts on West African monsoon precipitation using GeoMIP Models

Bonou, Frederic; Da-Allada, Casimir Yelognisse; Baloïtcha, Ezinvi; Alamou, Eric; Biao, Eliezer Iboukoun; Zandagba, Josué et al. (2021): Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols impacts on West African monsoon precipitation using GeoMIP Models. In Earth and Space Science Open Archive. DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10507841.1.

"Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering (SAG) is proposed to offset global warming; the use of this approach can impact the hydrological cycle. We use simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (G3 simulation) to analyze the impacts of SAG on precipitation (P) and to determine its responsible causes in West Africa and Sahel region."

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30.08.2021

# New Publications

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Zhang, Yan; et al. (2021): Data from: How large is the design space for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering?

Zhang, Yan; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Visioni, Daniele; Kravitz, Ben (2021): Data from: How large is the design space for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering?

"Data in support of research: Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), as a possible supplement to emission reduction, has the potential to reduce some of the risks associated with climate change. Adding aerosols to the lower stratosphere results in global cooling. However, different choices for the aerosol injection latitude(s) and season(s) have been shown to lead to significant differences in regional surface climate, introducing a design aspect to SAI. Past research has shown that there are at least three independent degrees of freedom (DOF) that can be used to simultaneously manage three different climate goals. Knowing how many more DOFs there are, and thus how many independent climate goals can be simultaneously managed, is essential to understanding fundamental limits of how well SAI might compensate for anthropogenic climate change, and evaluating any underlying trade-offs between different climate goals. Here we quantify the number of meaningfully-independent DOFs of the SAI design space."

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19.08.2021

# New Publications

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Visioni, Daniele; et al. (2021): Reduced poleward transport due to stratospheric heating under geoengineering

Visioni, Daniele; Simpson, Isla Ruth; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Richter, Jadwiga H.; Kravitz, Ben; Lee, Walker (2021): Reduced poleward transport due to stratospheric heating under geoengineering. DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10503509.1.

"Simulating the complex aerosol microphysical processes in a comprehensive Earth System Model can be very computationally intensive and therefore many models utilize a modal approach, where aerosol size distributions are represented by observations-derived lognormal functions. This approach has been shown to yield satisfactory results in a large array of applications, but there may be cases where the simplification in this approach may produce some shortcomings. In this work we show specific conditions under which the current approximations used in modal approaches might yield some incorrect answers. Using results from the Community Earth System Model v1 (CESM1) Geoengineering Large Ensemble (GLENS) project, we analyze the effects in the troposphere of a continuous increasing load of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere, with the aim of counteracting the surface warming produced by non-mitigated increasing greenhouse gases concentration between 2020–2100."

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12.08.2021

# New Publications

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Yue, Chao; et al. (2021): Vatnajökull mass loss under solar geoengineering due to the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

Yue, Chao; Schmidt, Louise Steffensen; Zhao, Liyun; Wolovick, Michael; Moore, John C. (2021): Vatnajökull mass loss under solar geoengineering due to the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. In Earth’s Future. DOI: 10.1029/2021EF002052.

"The objective of solar geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is to lower global temperatures, but it may also have adverse side-effects. Iceland is situated close to the overturning regions of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) that warms the North Atlantic area. Hence this may be one region where reduced irradiance by SAI may not be successful in reducing impacts from greenhouse gas warming. We examine this proposition by estimating how the Icelandic Vatnajökull ice cap (VIC) surface mass balance (SMB) and surface runoff changes in response to greenhouse gas and solar geoengineering scenarios over the period 1982-2089."

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09.08.2021

# New Publications

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Huynh, Han N.; McNeill, V. Faye (2021): Heterogeneous Reactivity of HCl on CaCO 3 Aerosols at Stratospheric Temperature

Huynh, Han N.; McNeill, V. Faye (2021): Heterogeneous Reactivity of HCl on CaCO 3 Aerosols at Stratospheric Temperature. In ACS Earth Space Chem. DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00151.

"We studied the kinetics of HCl uptake on airborne CaCO3 aerosols at stratospheric temperature, 207 ± 3 K, by performing experiments under dry conditions using an aerosol flow tube coupled with a custom-built quadrupole chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) for HCl detection."

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26.07.2021

# New Publications

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Weisenstein, Debra K.; et al. (2021): A Model Intercomparison of Stratospheric Solar Geoengineering by Accumulation-Mode Sulfate Aerosols

Weisenstein, Debra K.; Visioni, Daniele; Franke, Henning; Niemeier, Ulrike; Vattioni, Sandro; Chiodo, Gabriel et al. (2021): A Model Intercomparison of Stratospheric Solar Geoengineering by Accumulation-Mode Sulfate Aerosols. Preprint. In Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-569.

"The intercomparison explores how the injection of new accumulation-mode particles changes the large-scale particle size distribution and thus the overall radiative and dynamical response to sulfate aerosol injection."

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19.07.2021

# New Publications

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Laakso, Anton; et al. (2021): Dependency of the impacts of geoengineering on the stratospheric sulfur injection strategy part 1: Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol module

Laakso, Anton; Niemeier, Ulrike; Visioni, Daniele; Tilmes, Simone; Kokkola, Harri (2021): Dependency of the impacts of geoengineering on the stratospheric sulfur injection strategy part 1: Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol module. In Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, pp. 1–36. DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-526.

"Here, we have studied different spatio-temporal injections strategies with different injection magnitudes by using the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ with two aerosol microphysical modules: the sectional module SALSA and the modal module M7."

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19.07.2021

# New Publications

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Neukermans, Armand; et al. (2021): Methods for Dispersal of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for Stratospheric Aerosol Injection

Neukermans, Armand; Cooper, Gary; Foster, Jack; Galbraith, Lee; Jain, Sudhanshu (2021): Methods for Dispersal of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for Stratospheric Aerosol Injection. In Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-20-0205.1.

"Two methods for the laboratory-scale formation of aerosols of nanosized particles of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), for potential use in Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI), a Solar Radiation Management (SRM) technique, are described"

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12.07.2021

# New Publications

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Neukermans, Armand; et al. (2021): Methods for Dispersal of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for Stratospheric Aerosol Injection

Neukermans, Armand, Gary Cooper, Jack Foster, Lee Galbraith, and Sudhanshu Jain (2021): Methods for Dispersal of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate for Stratospheric Aerosol Injection. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. https://doi.org/10.1175/jtech-d-20-0205.1.

‌"Two methods for the laboratory-scale formation of aerosols of nanosized particles of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), for potential use in Stratospheric Aerosol Injection (SAI), a Solar Radiation Management (SRM) technique, are described."

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