20.09.2021

# New Publications

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Akimoto, Keigo; et al. (2021): Climate change mitigation measures for global net-zero emissions and the roles of CO2 capture and utilization and direct air capture

Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Oda, Junichiro; Kanaboshi, Haruo; Nakano, Yuko (2021): Climate change mitigation measures for global net-zero emissions and the roles of CO2 capture and utilization and direct air capture. In Energy and Climate Change, p. 100057. DOI: 10.1016/j.egycc.2021.100057.

"Many existing scenario studies show the need for large amounts of biomass energy with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS) to achieve net-zero emissions, requiring high mitigation costs. This study provides comprehensive and cost-efficient technological portfolios for both energy supply and demand, and reveals the roles of carbon dioxide utilization (CCU) and direct air capture (DAC) for achieving global net-zero emissions by using a technology-rich global energy systems and climate change mitigation model which can assess them comprehensively, while considering several kinds of uncertainties. According to the analyses, DAC will be able to dramatically reduce emission reduction costs and alleviate dependence on BECCS. There are no feasible solutions for temperature increases below 1.5 °C in 2100 with 66% achievability under a temperature overshoot pathway unless DAC is used. Carbon free or nearly carbon free hydrogen plays important roles for net-zero emissions, and CCU helps increase the usability of hydrogen via synthetic fuels, and thus contributes to net-zero emissions. The relationships between DAC and CCU are very complex; the reductions in marginal abatement costs of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to DAC will reduce the roles of CCU around 2050 for many of the pathways to net-zero emissions. Meanwhile, for deeper reductions of CO2 emissions including net negative emissions in 2100, DAC will increase the roles of CCU by providing recovered CO2 from DAC, and also expand the opportunity for the use of recovered CO2 from fossil fuel combustion for synthetic fuels, because the related emissions are offset by larger negative emissions from the combination of DAC and CO2 storage (DACCS)."

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06.09.2021

# New Publications

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Rodrigues, Renato; et al. (2021): Narrative-driven alternative roads to achieve mid-century CO2 net neutrality in Europe

Rodrigues, Renato; Pietzcker, Robert; Fragkos, Panagiotis; Price, James; McDowall, Will; Siskos, Pelopidas et al. (2021): Narrative-driven alternative roads to achieve mid-century CO2 net neutrality in Europe. In Energy, p. 121908. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2021.121908.

"The tightened climate mitigation targets of the EU green deal raise an important question: Which strategy should be used to achieve carbon emissions net neutrality? This study explores stakeholder-designed narratives of the future energy system development within the deep decarbonization context. European carbon net-neutrality goals are put under test in a model comparison exercise using state of the art Energy-Environment-Economy (E3) models: ETM-UCL, PRIMES and REMIND."

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03.09.2021

# New Publications

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Mackler, Sasha; et al. (2021): A policy agenda for gigaton-scale carbon management

Mackler, Sasha; Fishman, Xan; Broberg, Danny (2021): A policy agenda for gigaton-scale carbon management. In The Electricity Journal 34 (7), p. 106999. DOI: 10.1016/j.tej.2021.106999.

"the scale of the climate challenge is monumental. Today’s global economy still relies on fossil fuels for 84 % of its energy needs; these fuels are extracted, transported, processed, and consumed through large, intricate, and often interconnected systems that developed over more than a century and reflect trillions of dollars of invested capital. In 2019, the United States accounted for 6 billion of the 40 billion tons of greenhouse gases emitted globally. In the span of a few decades, we must transition to an economy with net-zero emissions. The scale of this challenge—technologically, financially, logistically, and politically—is difficult to overstate. And success will not be possible unless critical clean energy and climate mitigation technologies, several of which are still in the nascent stages of commercialization and deployment, are scaled by several orders of magnitude within the next two decades. Technologies for managing carbon emissions, including technologies that can capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources or remove CO2 from the atmosphere, are among these high priority solutions, and must be scaled to the gigaton level by 2050."

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30.08.2021

# Media

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CNBC: Climate experts are worried about the toughest carbon emissions for companies to capture

"Scope 3 carbon emissions, or those not part of operations or under direct control, represent the majority of the carbon footprint for most companies, in some cases as high as 85% to 95%. As companies lay out ambitious carbon reduction targets and net-zero pledges for the decades ahead, slow progress on tracking Scope 3 emissions has climate experts worried."

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30.08.2021

# Political Papers

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Allan, J.; et al. (2020): A net-zero emissions economic recovery from COVID-19. COP26 Universities Network Briefing

Allan, J.; Donovan, C.; Ekins, P.; Gambhir, A.; Hepburn, C.; Reay, D. et al. (2020): A net-zero emissions economic recovery from COVID-19. COP26 Universities Network Briefing. COP26. UK. Available online at https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/Media_758105_smxx.pdf.

"Key messages:

  • Economic growth will be a high priority for all countries in the months and years following COVID-19. The transition to net-zero emissions can significantly contribute to the recovery.
  • Lessons can be learnt from the recovery packages introduced following the 2008 financial crisis, but the COVID-19 crisis is structurally different on the demand and supply side.
  • In the lead up to COP26, the UK could provide guidance and methodologies to evaluate proposed recovery packages for consistency with the Paris Agreement and net-zero emissions.
  • The UK could lead by example with a recovery package including components on net-zero buildings, energy storage, clean industry, transport and greenhouse gas removal.
  • Institutionally, this could be supported by establishing a ministerial Climate Change Emergency Committee along with a Net Zero Delivery Body to implement a coherent response.
  • Financially, a new National Investment Bank and focus on green financial instruments could enable the process.
  • Building on these domestic efforts, as COP26 President, the UK could coordinate a global response through a new flexible intergovernmental Sustainable Recovery Alliance."

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30.08.2021

# Political Papers

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Petersen, K.; et al.(2021): Destination net zero: setting and delivering ambitious, credible targets. COP26 Universities Network Briefing

Petersen, K.; Allen, M.; Hilson, C.; Jones, C.; Reay, D.; Smith, S. M. (2021): Destination net zero: setting and delivering ambitious, credible targets. COP26 Universities Network Briefing. COP26. UK. Available online at https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/Media_781321_smxx.pdf.

"Net zero emissions targets have gained traction in the global effort to halt climate change1 . In 2019, the UK became the first of the G7 nations to make a legally binding commitment to reaching net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Of the G20, China has recently committed to carbon neutrality by 2060, while South Korea and Japan have committed to net zero emissions by 2050. At least 53% of gross domestic product (GDP) is now produced in countries, regions or cities where net zero emissions targets have either been agreed or are being proposed2 . Setting strong, ambitious targets for achieving net zero emissions enables governments at national, regional and city level to clearly align with the Paris Agreement. They provide a clear deadline for creating a zero-carbon economy, giving certainty and clarity for planners, industry, investors and consumers. Similarly, businesses and other organisations benefit from setting their own net zero targets by providing accountability to their stakeholders that they are changing their operations at the scale and pace needed for alignment with the Paris Agreement."

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26.07.2021

# Media

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Innovative Genomics Institute: IGI Launches New Research in Net-Zero Farming & Carbon Capture

"Together, these projects aim to realize a vision of a net-zero farm that maintains food security with reduced input from farmers and greenhouse gas emissions, and use farming to capture and store more carbon from the atmosphere."

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19.07.2021

# Political Papers

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Energy Transitions Commission (2021): Bioresources within a Net-Zero Emissions Economy: Making a Sustainable Approach Possible

Energy Transitions Commission (2021): Bioresources within a Net-Zero Emissions Economy: Making a Sustainable Approach Possible.

"In its new report Bioresources within a Net-Zero Emissions Economy, the Energy Transitions Commission (ETC) makes plain that, while bioresources are in principle renewable, not all forms of biomass use are beneficial from an environmental perspective: not all biomass is ‘good’ biomass."

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19.07.2021

# Political Papers

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Hydrogen4EU (2021): Charting Pathways to Enable Net Zero

Hydrogen4EU (2021): Charting Pathways to Enable Net Zero. Hydrogen for Europe study.

"This joint modelling effort is among the first to consider explicitly the latest European targets (e.g. the 55% CO2 emissions reduction by 2030 and climate neutrality by 2050). It allows for an analysis of hydrogen’s potential with a detailed technological, sectoral and geographic scope, including 27 European countries and considering the potential of hydrogen imports from North Africa, the Middle East, Russia and Ukraine."

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12.07.2021

# New Publications

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Bistline, John E.T., and Geoffrey J. Blanford (2021): The Role of the Power Sector in Net-Zero Energy Systems

Bistline, John E.T., and Geoffrey J. Blanford (2021): The Role of the Power Sector in Net-Zero Energy Systems. Energy and Climate Change, July, 100045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egycc.2021.100045.

"This article summarizes insights from the literature on the role and characteristics of the electric power sector as part of net-zero emissions energy systems."

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