04.10.2021

# New Publications

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Goode, P. R.; et al. (2021): Earth's Albedo 1998–2017 as Measured From Earthshine

Goode, P. R.; Pallé, E.; Shoumko, A.; Shoumko, S.; Montañes‐Rodriguez, P.; Koonin, S. E. (2021): Earth's Albedo 1998–2017 as Measured From Earthshine. In Geophysical Research Letters 48 (17). DOI: 10.1029/2021GL094888.

"The reflectance of the Earth is a fundamental climate parameter that we measured from Big Bear Solar Observatory between 1998 and 2017 by observing the earthshine using modern photometric techniques to precisely determine daily, monthly, seasonal, yearly and decadal changes in terrestrial albedo from earthshine. We find the inter-annual fluctuations in albedo to be global, while the large variations in albedo within individual nights and seasonal wanderings tend to average out over each year. We measure a gradual, but climatologically significant urn:x-wiley:00948276:media:grl62955:grl62955-math-00010.5 W/m2 decline in the global albedo over the two decades of data. We found no correlation between the changes in the terrestrial albedo and measures of solar activity. The inter-annual pattern of earthshine fluctuations are in good agreement with those measured by CERES (data began in 2001) even though the satellite observations are sensitive to retroflected light while earthshine is sensitive to wide-angle reflectivity. The CERES decline is about twice that of earthshine."

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30.09.2021

# Calls & events

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Call for Abstracts: 2nd International Conference on Negative CO2 Emissions

Deadline: 1. December 2021

"The objective of the Paris Agreement is to limit global warming to well below 2ºC, and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5ºC. The carbon budget is the amount of carbon dioxide that we can emit while still limiting global temperature rise to a given level, for example 1.5ºC.The exact size of the carbon budget is uncertain and depends on many factors, including potential future warming of non-CO2 climate forcers. This said, the remaining budgets for limiting the warming to 1.5ºC or 2ºC have been estimated at about 420 and 1170 Gt of CO2 . With unchanged present emissions at about 40 Gt CO2/year these budgets would be exhausted in as few as 10 and 30 years, respectively. Most of the IPCC emission scenarios that meet a global two-degree target in 2100 overshoot the carbon budget at first and then remove the excess carbon with large negative emissions, typically on the order of 400‑800 Gt CO2 up to 2100.At the same time as negative emissions appear to be indispensable to meet adopted climate targets, the large future negative emissions assumed in climate models have been questioned and warnings have been raised about relying on very large and uncertain negative emissions in the future. With the future climate at stake, a deeper and fuller understanding of the various aspects of negative emissions is needed."

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28.09.2021

# New Publications

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Kuswanto, Heri; et al. (2021): Impact of Solar Geoengineering on Temperatures over the Indonesian Maritime Continent

Kuswanto, Heri; Kravitz, Ben; Miftahurrohmah, Brina; Fauzi, Fatkhurokhman; Sopahaluwaken, Ardhasena; Moore, John (2021): Impact of Solar Geoengineering on Temperatures over the Indonesian Maritime Continent. In Int J Climatol. DOI: 10.1002/joc.7391.

"Climate change has been projected to increase the intensity and magnitude of extreme temperature in Indonesia. Solar radiation management (SRM) has been proposed as a strategy to temporarily combat global warming, buying time for negative emissions. Though the global impacts of SRM have been extensively studied in recent years, regional impacts, especially in the tropics, have received much less attention. This paper investigates the potential stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection (SAI) to modify mean and extreme temperature, as well as the relative humidity and wet bulb temperature (WBT) change over Indonesian Maritime Continent (IMC) based on simulations from three different earth system models. We applied a simple downscaling method and corrected the bias of model output to reproduce historical temperatures and relative humidity over IMC. We evaluated changes in Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) experiment G4, an SAI experiment in 5 Tg of SO2 into the equatorial lower stratosphere between 2020 and 2069, concurrent with the RCP4.5 emissions scenario."

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06.09.2021

# Media

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CSA: Amazon supports climate simulations with cloud computing

"Amazon is donating Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud capabilities to support simulations of near-term climate change."

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25.08.2021

# New Publications

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Gernon, Thomas M.; et al. (2021): Global chemical weathering dominated by continental arcs since the mid-Palaeozoic

Gernon, Thomas M.; Hincks, Thea K.; Merdith, Andrew S.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Foster, Gavin L. et al. (2021): Global chemical weathering dominated by continental arcs since the mid-Palaeozoic. In: Nat. Geosci. 28, S. 611. DOI: 10.1038/s41561-021-00806-0.

"Earth’s plate-tectonic activity regulates the carbon cycle and, hence, climate, via volcanic outgassing and silicate-rock weathering. Mountain building, arc–continent collisions and clustering of continents in the tropics have all been invoked as controlling the weathering flux, with arcs also acting as a major contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, these processes have largely been considered in isolation when in reality they are all tightly coupled. To properly account for interactions among these processes, and the inherent multi-million-year time lags at play in the Earth system, we need to characterize their complex interdependencies. Here we analyse these interdependencies over the past 400 million years using a Bayesian network to identify primary relationships, time lags and drivers of the global chemical weathering signal."

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22.07.2021

# Calls & events

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Job: Post-doc position in Earth system modelling of nature-based climate solutions

No Deadline

"The successful applicant will be part of a Microsoft-funded research project investigating the climate implications of temporary land-based carbon storage."

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19.07.2021

# New Publications

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An, Soon‐Il; et al. (2021): Global cooling hiatus driven by an AMOC overshoot in a carbon dioxide removal scenario

An, Soon‐Il; Shin, Jongsoo; Yeh, Sang‐Wook; Son, Seok‐Woo; Kug, Jong‐Seong; Min, Seung‐Ki; Kim, Hyo‐Jeong (2021): Global cooling hiatus driven by an AMOC overshoot in a carbon dioxide removal scenario. In Earth’s Future. DOI: 10.1029/2021EF002165.

"Here, we performed an Earth system model simulation to explore the reversibility of earth climate, in which a CO2 concentration level gradually increases to 4 times CO2 of the present-day level and then returns to the present-day level."

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24.06.2021

# New Publications

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Zickfeld, Kirsten; et al. (2021): Asymmetry in the climate–carbon cycle response to positive and negative CO2 emissions

Zickfeld, Kirsten; Azevedo, Deven; Mathesius, Sabine; Matthews, H. Damon (2021): Asymmetry in the climate–carbon cycle response to positive and negative CO2 emissions. In Nat. Clim. Chang., pp. 1–5. DOI: 10.1038/s41558-021-01061-2.

" It is commonly assumed that the climate–carbon cycle response to a negative CO2 emission is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the response to an equivalent positive CO2 emission. Here we test the hypothesis that this response is symmetric by forcing an Earth system model with positive and negative CO2 emission pulses of varying magnitude and applied from different climate states."

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16.06.2021

# New Publications

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Saidi, Majid; Inaloo, Ebrahim Balaghi (2021): CO2 Removal Using 1DMA2P Solvent via Membrane Technology: Rate Based Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis

Saidi, Majid; Inaloo, Ebrahim Balaghi (2021): CO2 Removal Using 1DMA2P Solvent via Membrane Technology: Rate Based Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis. In Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification, p. 108464. DOI: 10.1016/j.cep.2021.108464.

"A numerically solved reaction rate/kinetic model for CO2 removal from a CO2/N2 gas mixture into novel reactive 1-dimethylamino-2-propanol (1DMA2P) solution in a gas–liquid membrane contactor was constructed."

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14.06.2021

# New Publications

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Belmonte, Beatriz A.; et al. (2021): A fuzzy optimization model for planning integrated terrestrial carbon management networks

Belmonte, Beatriz A.; Aviso, Kathleen B.; Benjamin, Michael Francis D.; Tan, Raymond R. (2021): A fuzzy optimization model for planning integrated terrestrial carbon management networks. In Clean Techn Environ Policy, pp. 1–13. DOI: 10.1007/s10098-021-02119-7.

"Although recent papers have reported the development of process integration models for optimizing carbon management networks based on either biochar application or enhanced weathering, none have reported models integrating these two NETs in the same system. To address this gap, a fuzzy mixed-integer linear programming model is developed that integrates biochar application and enhanced weathering for large-scale carbon sequestration."

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