16.06.2021

# New Publications

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Haywood, Jim (2021): Atmospheric aerosols and their role in climate change

Haywood, Jim (2021): Atmospheric aerosols and their role in climate change. In T. M. Letcher (Ed.): Climate change. Observed impacts on planet Earth. Third edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 645–659.

"Aerosols are also implicated in climate feedback mechanisms where atmospheric concentrations of natural aerosols such as sea salt, mineral dust, and organic aerosols are potentially perturbed in response to future climate change scenarios. We also briefly investigate the contentious issue of aerosols in potential climate engineering via solar radiation management schemes."

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10.06.2021

# New Publications

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Franke, Henning; et al. (2021): Differences in the quasi-biennial oscillation response to stratospheric aerosol modification depending on injection strategy and species

Franke, Henning; Niemeier, Ulrike; Visioni, Daniele (2021): Differences in the quasi-biennial oscillation response to stratospheric aerosol modification depending on injection strategy and species. In Atmos. Chem. Phys 21 (11), pp. 8615–8635. DOI: 10.5194/acp-21-8615-2021.

"Our simulations confirm that the QBO response significantly depends on the injection location."

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17.05.2021

# New Publications

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Gao, Ru-Shan; et al. (2021): Toward practical stratospheric aerosol albedo modification: Solar-powered lofting

Gao, Ru-Shan; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Kärcher, Bernd; Tilmes, Simone; Toon, Owen B.; Maloney, Christopher; Yu, Pengfei (2021): Toward practical stratospheric aerosol albedo modification: Solar-powered lofting. In Science Advances 7 (20). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe3416.

"We explore a delivery method termed solar-powered lofting (SPL) that uses solar energy to loft CI material injected at lower altitudes accessible by conventional aircraft. Particles that absorb solar radiation are dispersed with the CI material and heat the surrounding air. The heated air rises, carrying the CI material to the stratosphere. Global model simulations show that black carbon aerosol (10 microgram per cubic meter) is sufficient to quickly loft CI material well into the stratosphere. SPL could make SAI viable at present, is also more energy efficient, and disperses CI material faster than direct stratospheric injection."

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11.05.2021

# New Publications

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Banerjee, Antara; et al. (2021): Robust winter warming over Eurasia under stratospheric sulfate geoengineering – the role of stratospheric dynamics

Banerjee, Antara; Butler, Amy H.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Robock, Alan; Simpson, Isla R.; Sun, Lantao (2021): Robust winter warming over Eurasia under stratospheric sulfate geoengineering – the role of stratospheric dynamics. In Atmos. Chem. Phys 21 (9), pp. 6985–6997. DOI: 10.5194/acp-21-6985-2021.

"We here investigate the proposed connection in the context of hypothetical future stratospheric sulfate geoengineering in the Geoengineering Large Ensemble simulations."

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10.05.2021

# New Publications

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Harrison, R. Giles; et al. (2021): Demonstration of a Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Measurement and Charge Release Platform for Geoengineering

Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri A.; Tilley, Douglas J.; Marlton, Graeme J.; Chindea, Stefan; Dingley, Gavin P. et al. (2021): Demonstration of a Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Measurement and Charge Release Platform for Geoengineering. In Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 38 (1), pp. 63–75. DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-20-0092.1.

"Electric charge is always present in the lower atmosphere. If droplets or aerosols become charged, their behavior changes, influencing collision, evaporation, and deposition. Artificial charge release is an unexplored potential geoengineering technique for modifying fogs, clouds, and rainfall. Central to evaluating these processes experimentally in the atmosphere is establishing an effective method for charge delivery."

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26.04.2021

# New Publications

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Ming, Tingzhen; et al. (2021): A nature-based negative emissions technology able to remove atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases

Ming, Tingzhen; Richter, Renaud de; Dietrich Oeste, Franz; Tulip, Robert; Caillol, Sylvain (2021): A nature-based negative emissions technology able to remove atmospheric methane and other greenhouse gases. In Atmospheric Pollution Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.apr.2021.02.017.

"As some anthropogenic emissions cannot be zero, to compensate them it will be necessary to remove GHGs from the atmosphere. Among possible methods, the Iron Salt Aerosol (ISA) offers new possibilities, including removal of methane and several other GHGs, as well as carbon dioxide."

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12.04.2021

# New Publications

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Lee, Walker Raymond; et al. (2021): High‐latitude stratospheric aerosol geoengineering can be more effective if injection is limited to spring

Lee, Walker Raymond; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Visioni, Daniele; Kravitz, Ben (2021): High‐latitude stratospheric aerosol geoengineering can be more effective if injection is limited to spring. In Geophysical Research Letters. DOI: 10.1029/2021GL092696.

"We demonstrate that spring injection produces approximately twice as much summer AOD as year‐round injection and restores approximately twice as much September sea ice, resulting in less increase in stratospheric sulfur burden, stratospheric heating, and stratospheric ozone depletion per unit of sea ice restored. We also find that differences in AOD between different seasonal injection strategies are small compared to the difference between annual and spring injection."

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06.04.2021

# New Publications

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Zarnetske, Phoebe L.; et al. (2021): Potential ecological impacts of climate intervention by reflecting sunlight to cool Earth

Zarnetske, Phoebe L.; Gurevitch, Jessica; Franklin, Janet; Groffman, Peter M.; Harrison, Cheryl S.; Hellmann, Jessica J. et al. (2021): Potential ecological impacts of climate intervention by reflecting sunlight to cool Earth. In PNAS 118 (15), e1921854118. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921854118.

"We focus here on stratospheric aerosol intervention (SAI), a well-studied and relatively feasible SRM scheme that is likely to have a large impact on Earth’s surface temperature. We outline current gaps in knowledge about both helpful and harmful predicted effects of SAI on ecological systems."

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23.03.2021

# Media

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C2G Guest Post: Stratospheric aerosol injection could be a painkiller, but not a cure – and more research is needed

"It has to be clear that at best SAI would be a complement to emission reductions, which have to be the absolute priority, and probably carbon dioxide removal. SAI could reduce climate change impacts, but it would not contribute to the ‘solution’."

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22.03.2021

# Political Papers

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C2G Policy Brief (2021): Climate-Altering Approaches and the Arctic

C2G Policy Brief (2021): Climate-Altering Approaches  and the Arctic. 17th March 2021 - 2nd Edition.

"The Arctic plays a key role in the global climate system. Current commitments made under the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change are insufficient to keep global warming to ‘well below’ 2°C, and according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), much greater ambition is necessary."

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