20.09.2021

# New Publications

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Akimoto, Keigo; et al. (2021): Climate change mitigation measures for global net-zero emissions and the roles of CO2 capture and utilization and direct air capture

Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Oda, Junichiro; Kanaboshi, Haruo; Nakano, Yuko (2021): Climate change mitigation measures for global net-zero emissions and the roles of CO2 capture and utilization and direct air capture. In Energy and Climate Change, p. 100057. DOI: 10.1016/j.egycc.2021.100057.

"Many existing scenario studies show the need for large amounts of biomass energy with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS) to achieve net-zero emissions, requiring high mitigation costs. This study provides comprehensive and cost-efficient technological portfolios for both energy supply and demand, and reveals the roles of carbon dioxide utilization (CCU) and direct air capture (DAC) for achieving global net-zero emissions by using a technology-rich global energy systems and climate change mitigation model which can assess them comprehensively, while considering several kinds of uncertainties. According to the analyses, DAC will be able to dramatically reduce emission reduction costs and alleviate dependence on BECCS. There are no feasible solutions for temperature increases below 1.5 °C in 2100 with 66% achievability under a temperature overshoot pathway unless DAC is used. Carbon free or nearly carbon free hydrogen plays important roles for net-zero emissions, and CCU helps increase the usability of hydrogen via synthetic fuels, and thus contributes to net-zero emissions. The relationships between DAC and CCU are very complex; the reductions in marginal abatement costs of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to DAC will reduce the roles of CCU around 2050 for many of the pathways to net-zero emissions. Meanwhile, for deeper reductions of CO2 emissions including net negative emissions in 2100, DAC will increase the roles of CCU by providing recovered CO2 from DAC, and also expand the opportunity for the use of recovered CO2 from fossil fuel combustion for synthetic fuels, because the related emissions are offset by larger negative emissions from the combination of DAC and CO2 storage (DACCS)."

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15.09.2021

# Media

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Carbon 180: What to do with wood pellets? Burning issues in BECCS and forestry

"Trees are a key piece of the carbon removal puzzle—both as they grow and after they’re harvested. Recently, the use of wood pellets (portable, compacted sawdust) in the UK and EU’s renewable energy production portfolio has been steadily growing. Given the US’s status as the top wood pellet exporter, there are concerns over subsequent impacts to forest ecosystems — and their ability to remove carbon from the atmosphere. As we shape the role of wood pellets as feedstock for climate technologies, it’s imperative that we take a holistic approach when exploring the entangled issues of forests and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)."

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06.09.2021

# New Publications

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Wu, Zitao; Zhai, Haibo (2021): Consumptive life cycle water use of biomass-to-power plants with carbon capture and sequestration

Wu, Zitao; Zhai, Haibo (2021): Consumptive life cycle water use of biomass-to-power plants with carbon capture and sequestration. In Applied Energy 303, p. 117702. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117702.

"Biomass-to-power conversion provides the most promising route to bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS). The objectives of this study are to estimate the water consumption of biomass-to-power plants with CCS and then quantify its variability and uncertainty on a life cycle basis. The fuel-based life cycle analysis reveals that compared to the case of complete coal combustion with CCS, co-firing biomass at coal-fired power plants with CCS significantly increases the life cycle blue water consumption, depending on the type, co-firing rate, and production location of biomass; and dedicated biomass combustion with CCS further increases the life cycle blue water consumption by a factor of more than 55."

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20.08.2021

# New Publications

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Geissler, Caleb H.; Maravelias, Christos T. (2021): Economic, energetic, and environmental analysis of lignocellulosic biorefineries with carbon capture

Geissler, Caleb H.; Maravelias, Christos T. (2021): Economic, energetic, and environmental analysis of lignocellulosic biorefineries with carbon capture. In Applied Energy 302, p. 117539. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117539.

"Bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) is a promising method for global warming mitigation. We use a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model to examine the impact of carbon sequestration credits, capture rates, biorefinery capacity, feedstock, and pretreatment selection on the performance of an ethanol biorefinery system."

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28.07.2021

# New Publications

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Li, Wei; et al. (2021): Bioenergy Crops for Low Warming Targets Require Half of the Present Agricultural Fertilizer Use

Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Han, Mengjie; Zhao, Qing; Chang, Jinfeng; Goll, Daniel S. et al. (2021): Bioenergy Crops for Low Warming Targets Require Half of the Present Agricultural Fertilizer Use. In Environmental science & technology. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c02238.

"Here, we use an observation-driven approach to estimate the future bioenergy biomass production for land-use scenarios maximizing BECCS and the pertaining nutrient requirements."

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12.07.2021

# New Publications

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Freer, Muir; et al. (2021): Carbon Optimal Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage Supply Chain Modelling: How Far Is Too Far?

Freer, Muir, Clair Gough, Andrew Welfle, and Amanda Lea-Langton (2021): Carbon Optimal Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage Supply Chain Modelling: How Far Is Too Far? Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 47 (October): 101406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2021.101406.

"The methodology presented in this analysis provides a useful heuristic that can aid the carbon-efficient deployment of BECCS in the UK and has the potential to be replicated for other countries or calculate carbon-efficient trans-national BECCS supply chains."

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07.07.2021

# New Publications

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Weng, Yuwei; Cai, Wenjia; Wang, Can (2021): Evaluating the use of BECCS and afforestation under China’s carbon-neutral target for 2060

Weng, Yuwei; Cai, Wenjia; Wang, Can (2021): Evaluating the use of BECCS and afforestation under China’s carbon-neutral target for 2060. In Applied Energy, p. 117263. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117263.

"A general equilibrium model augmented with explicit bioenergy sectors is developed."

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07.07.2021

# New Publications

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Negri, Valentina; et al. (2021): Life cycle optimization of BECCS supply chains in the European Union

Negri, Valentina; Galán-Martín, Ángel; Pozo, Carlos; Fajardy, Mathilde; Reiner, David M.; Mac Dowell, Niall; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo (2021): Life cycle optimization of BECCS supply chains in the European Union. In Applied Energy 298, p. 117252. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117252.

"We here explore the complexity of the infrastructures involved in realizing a large-scale system and the sequestration potential of bioenergy in Europe. Starting from a minimum cost scenario, we develop cost-optimal solutions that minimize the environmental impact of the overall BECCS supply chain according to the life cycle impact assessment methodology."

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07.07.2021

# New Publications

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Zhipin Ai; et al. (2021): Global bioenergy with carbon capture and storage potential is largely constrained by sustainable irrigation

Zhipin Ai; Naota Hanasaki; Vera Heck; Tomoko Hasegawa; Shinichiro Fujimori (2021): Global bioenergy with carbon capture and storage potential is largely constrained by sustainable irrigation. In Nat Sustain, pp. 1–8. DOI: 10.1038/s41893-021-00740-4.

"With a spatially explicit representation of bioenergy crop plantations and water cycle in an internally consistent model framework, we identified the irrigable bioenergy cropland on the basis of the water resources reserve."

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07.07.2021

# Media

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Phys.org: Global BECCS potential is largely constrained by sustainable irrigation

"A new collaborative study led by researchers from the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Ritsumeikan University, and Kyoto University found that although unlimited irrigation could increase global BECCS potential (via the increase of bioenergy production) by 60-71% by the end of this century, sustainably constrained irrigation would increase it by only 5-6%."

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