11.02.2019

# New Publications

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Sato, Y.; et al. (2019): How do aerosols affect cloudiness?

Sato, Y.; Suzuki, K. (2019): How do aerosols affect cloudiness? In: Science (New York, N.Y.) 363 (6427), S. 580–581. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw3720.

"Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in the atmosphere that originate from sources such as agricultural waste, forest fires, sea spray (see the photo), desert dust, and industrial pollution. They alter the energy balance of Earth's climate system through direct reflection and absorption of solar radiation as well as through modulating cloud properties by serving as nuclei for cloud particles."

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04.02.2019

# New Publications

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Williams, N.; et al. (2019): CO2 Capture via Crystalline Hydrogen-Bonded Bicarbonate Dimers

Williams, N.; Seipp, C.; Brethomé, F.; Ma, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Bryantsev, V. et al. (2019): CO2 Capture via Crystalline Hydrogen-Bonded Bicarbonate Dimers. In: Chem. DOI: 10.1016/j.chempr.2018.12.025.

"Human activities in the last one and a half centuries have perturbed the natural carbon cycle, shifting massive amounts of carbon from the geosphere into the atmosphere and leading to climate change at an unprecedented pace. [...] Here, we demonstrate a promising approach to CO2 capture based on crystallization of bicarbonate-water clusters with a simple guanidine compound. The CO2 separation cycle involves a unique proton-transfer mechanism via the formation of a carbonic acid dimer, leading to efficient CO2 release and quantitative regeneration of the guanidine compound and requiring significantly less energy than state-of-the-art carbon-capture technologies."

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04.02.2019

# New Publications

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Adánez-Rubio, I.; et al. (2019): Chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling. An advanced biomass combustion technology to avoid CO2 emissions

Adánez-Rubio, I.; Pérez-Astray, A.; Abad, A.; Gayán, P.; Diego, L. de; Adánez, J. (2019): Chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling. An advanced biomass combustion technology to avoid CO2 emissions. In: Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 6, S. 189. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-019-9840-5.

"Bioenergy with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (BECCS) technologies represent an interesting option to reach negative carbon emissions, which implies the removal of CO2 already emitted to the atmosphere. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) with biomass can be considered as a promising BECCS technology since CLC has low cost and energy penalty. In CLC, the oxygen needed for combustion is supplied by a solid oxygen carrier circulating between the fuel and air reactors."

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04.02.2019

# New Publications

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Whyte, Kyle Powys (2019): Indigeneity in Geoengineering Discourses

Whyte, Kyle Powys (2019): Indigeneity in Geoengineering Discourses. Some Considerations. In: Ethics, Policy & Environment 20 (2), S. 1–19. DOI: 10.1080/21550085.2018.1562529.

"Indigenous peoples are referenced at various times in communication, debates, and academic and policy discussions on geoengineering (i.e. geoengineering discourses). The discourses I have in mind focus on ethical and justice issues pertaining to some geoengineering research and (potential) implementation. The issues include concerns about potential inequalities in the distribution of environmental risks, research ethics, and abuses of social power."

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04.02.2019

# New Publications

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Helwegen, K.; et al. (2019): Complementing CO2 emission reduction by Geoengineering might strongly enhance future welfare

Helwegen, K.; Wieners, C.; Frank, J.; Dijkstra, H. (2019): Complementing CO2 emission reduction by Geoengineering might strongly enhance future welfare. In: Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss., S. 1–24. DOI: 10.5194/esd-2019-5.

"We find that SRM has the potential to greatly enhance future welfare and should therefore be taken seriously as a policy option. However, if only SRM and no CO2 abatement is used, global warming is not stabilised and will exceed 2K. Therefore, even if successful, SRM cannot replace but only complement CO2 abatement. The optimal policy combines CO2 abatement and modest SRM and succeeds in keeping global warming below 2K."

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28.01.2019

# New Publications

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Miocic, J.; et al. (2019): 420,000 year assessment of fault leakage rates shows geological carbon storage is secure

Miocic, J.; Gilfillan, S.; Frank, N.; Schroeder-Ritzrau, A.; Burnside, N.; Haszeldine, S. (2019): 420,000 year assessment of fault leakage rates shows geological carbon storage is secure. In: Scientific reports 9 (1), S. 769. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36974-0.

"Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is routinely cited as a cost effective tool for climate change mitigation. CCS can directly reduce industrial CO2 emissions and is essential for the retention of CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. To be effective as a climate change mitigation tool, CO2 must be securely retained for 10,000 years (10 ka) with a leakage rate of below 0.01% per year of the total amount of CO2 injected. Migration of CO2 back to the atmosphere via leakage through geological faults is a potential high impact risk to CO2 storage integrity."

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28.01.2019

# New Publications

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Zhao, R.; et al. (2019): Thermodynamic exploration of temperature vacuum swing adsorption for direct air capture of carbon dioxide in buildings

Zhao, R.; Liu, L.; Zhao, L.; Deng, S.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Li, H. (2019): Thermodynamic exploration of temperature vacuum swing adsorption for direct air capture of carbon dioxide in buildings. In: Energy Conversion and Management 183, S. 418–426. DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.01.009.

"Abrupt climate change such as the loss of Arctic sea-ice area urgently needs negative emissions technologies. The potential application of direct air capture of carbon dioxide from indoor air and outdoor air in closed buildings or crowded places has been discussed in this paper. From the aspects of carbon reduction and indoor comfort, the ventilation system integrating a capture device is of great value in practical use."

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28.01.2019

# New Publications

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Green, J.; et al. (2019): Large influence of soil moisture on long-term terrestrial carbon uptake

Green, J.; Seneviratne, S.; Berg, A.; Findell, K.; Hagemann, S.; Lawrence, D..; Gentine, P. (2019): Large influence of soil moisture on long-term terrestrial carbon uptake. In: Nature 565 (7740), S. 476–479. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0848-x.

"Although the terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 25 per cent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the rate of land carbon uptake remains highly uncertain, leading to uncertainties in climate projections1,2. Understanding the factors that limit or drive land carbon storage is therefore important for improving climate predictions. [...] Our results emphasize that the capacity of continents to act as a future carbon sink critically depends on the nonlinear response of carbon fluxes to soil moisture and on land–atmosphere interactions. This suggests that the increasing trend in carbon uptake rate may not be sustained past the middle of the century and could result in accelerated atmospheric CO2 growth."

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28.01.2019

# New Publications

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National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2019): Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams Utilization

National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2019): Gaseous Carbon Waste Streams Utilization. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

"In the quest to mitigate the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere, researchers and policymakers have increasingly turned their attention to techniques for capturing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, either from the locations where they are emitted or directly from the atmosphere. Once captured, these gases can be stored or put to use. While both carbon storage and carbon utilization have costs, utilization offers the opportunity to recover some of the cost and even generate economic value."

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28.01.2019

# New Publications

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Snyder, B. (2019): Costs of biomass pyrolysis as a negative emission technology: A case study

Snyder, B. (2019): Costs of biomass pyrolysis as a negative emission technology: A case study. In: Int J Energy Res 40 (7), S. 940. DOI: 10.1002/er.4361.

"Biomass pyrolysis is a promising method for the creation of biochar, a potentially long‐lived carbon sink, and renewable fuels. While a number of studies of the costs of pyrolysis exist, many fail to value the carbon storage benefit associated with biochar. Here, we evaluate the costs of three types of small‐scale pyrolysis systems (slow and fast, compared with gasification) in Costa Rica. We find that under many combinations of model parameters, fast and slow pyrolysis models are cost‐effective."

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