21.11.2018

# New Publications

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Richter, R.; et al. (2018): Geoengineering. Sunlight reflection methods and negative emissions technologies for greenhouse gas removal

Richter, R.; Caillol, S.; Ming, T. (2018): Geoengineering. Sunlight reflection methods and negative emissions technologies for greenhouse gas removal. In: Letcher, T. (ed.): MANAGING GLOBAL WARMING. An interface of technology and human issues. [S.l.]: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS, p. 581–636.

"In order to keep global warming well below 2°C, the greenhouse gases emissions have to drastically drop by up to 70% till 2050, falling then to zero, and becoming negative by 2100. Negative emissions technologies or NETs are included in almost all scenarios of the integrated assessment models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to build the synthesis report that led to the Paris agreement. While intensive research is urgently needed to assess the numerous NETs proposed by scientists, others propose a technological fix to cool the Earth artificially and win time: those proposals are named geoengineering."

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19.11.2018

# New Publications

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Siegel, R. (2018): The Artificial Tree

Siegel, R. (2018): The Artificial Tree. In: Mechanical Engineering 140 (11), S. 34. DOI: 10.1115/1.2018-NOV-2.

"Inside Arizona State University in Tempe’s lab sit the parts for an artificial tree, capable of extracting carbon dioxide 1,000 times faster than a natural tree. The research team is methodically transforming the process into a machine through which carbon dioxide doesn’t get turned into fruit or roots or tree trunks, as it does with a natural tree, but simply gets collected by resin in a reversible chemical process. This article takes a closer look at the process."

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19.11.2018

# New Publications

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Vattioni, S.; et al. (2018): Exploring accumulation-mode-H2SO4 versus SO2 stratospheric sulfate geoengineering in a sectional aerosol-chemistry-climate model

Vattioni, S.; Weisenstein, D.; Keith, D.; Feinberg, A.; Peter, T.; Stenke, A. (2018): Exploring accumulation-mode-H2SO4 versus SO2 stratospheric sulfate geoengineering in a sectional aerosol-chemistry-climate model. In: Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., S. 1–30. DOI: 10.5194/acp-2018-1070.

"In summary, this study corroborates previous studies with uncoupled aerosol and radiation modules, suggesting that, compared to SO2 injection, the direct emission of AM-H2SO4 results in more radiative forcing for the same sulfur equivalent mass injection strength and that sensitivities to different injection strategies may vary for different forms of injected sulfur."

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15.11.2018

# New Publications

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Bala, G.; et al. (2018): Solar Geoengineering Research in India

Bala, G.; Gupta, A. (2018): Solar Geoengineering Research in India. In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0122.1.

"We present here a brief account of the Indian scientific research into solar geoengineering. Climate modeling constitutes the major component of this geoengineering-relevant climate science research. The recent funding initiative by the Department of Science and Technology, the main funding agency for scientific research in India, in support of geoengineering modeling research and its efforts to bring natural, social and political scientists together for an evaluation solar geoengineering at meetings are also discussed. Finally, the directions for future scientific research into geoengineering in India are also discussed."

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12.11.2018

# New Publications

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Wei, L.; et al. (2018): Global streamflow and flood response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering

Wei, L.; Ji, D.; Miao, C,; Muri, H.; Moore, J. (2018): Global streamflow and flood response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering. In: Atmos. Chem. Phys 18 (21), S. 16033–16050. DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-16033-2018.

" In the Southern Hemisphere, the northern parts of landmasses have lower streamflow under G4, and streamflow of southern parts increases relative to RCP4.5. We furthermore calculate changes in 30-, 50-, and 100-year flood return periods relative to the historical (1960–1999) period under the RCP4.5 and G4 scenarios. Similar spatial patterns are produced for each return period, although those under G4 are closer to historical values than under RCP4.5. Hence, in general, solar geoengineering does appear to reduce flood risk in most regions, but the overall effects are largely determined by this large-scale geographic pattern. Although G4 stratospheric aerosol geoengineering ameliorates the Amazon drying under RCP4.5, with a weak increase in soil moisture, the decreased runoff and streamflow leads to an increased flood return period under G4 compared with RCP4.5."

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12.11.2018

# New Publications

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Madronich, S.; et al. (2018): Response of Surface Ultraviolet and Visible Radiation to Stratospheric SO2 Injections

Madronich, S.; Tilmes, S.; Kravitz, B.; MacMartin, D.; Richter, J. (2018): Response of Surface Ultraviolet and Visible Radiation to Stratospheric SO2 Injections. In: Atmosphere 9 (11), S. 432. DOI: 10.3390/atmos9110432.

"Climate modification by stratospheric SO2 injections, to form sulfate aerosols, may alter the spectral and angular distributions of the solar ultraviolet and visible radiation that reach the Earth’s surface, with potential consequences to environmental photobiology and photochemistry. We used modeling results from the CESM1(WACCM) stratospheric aerosol geoengineering large ensemble (GLENS) project, following the RCP8.5 emission scenario, and one geoengineering experiment with SO2 injections in the stratosphere, designed to keep surface temperatures at 2020 levels."

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12.11.2018

# New Publications

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Taillardat, P.; et al. (2018): Mangrove blue carbon strategies for climate change mitigation are most effective at the national scale

Taillardat, P.; Friess, D.; Lupascu, M. (2018): Mangrove blue carbon strategies for climate change mitigation are most effective at the national scale. In: Biology letters 14 (10). DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2018.0251.

"In 2014, mangroves mitigated greater than 1% of national fossil fuel emissions for countries such as Bangladesh, Colombia and Nigeria. Considering that the Paris Agreement is based on nationally determined contributions, we propose that mangrove blue carbon may contribute to climate change mitigation at this scale in some instances alongside other blue carbon ecosystems."

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12.11.2018

# New Publications

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Darton, R.; et al. (2018): Removing Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere – Assessing the Technologies

Darton, R.; Yang A. (2018): Removing Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere – Assessing the Technologies. In: Chemical Engineering Transaction 69, S. 91–96.

"Separation processes such as CO2 capture involve dissipation of energy in diffusion, the losses being greater when higher transfer rates are utilised to reduce equipment size. A process for generating power for air capture by humidifying dry air is analysed using an equivalent reversible process, which yields minimum utility requirements and maximum (reversible) efficiency. Comprehensive socio-economic and environmental assessments of NETs are needed. The Process Analysis Method provides a triple-bottom line sustainability assessment, but results are dependent on uncertain external factors such as the introduction of flue gas-CCS and the growth rate of renewables. The challenge for NETs becomes easier the faster the transition to a low-carbon economy occurs."

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12.11.2018

# New Publications

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Lal, R.; et al. (2018): The carbon sequestration potential of terrestrial ecosystems

Lal, R.; Smith, P.; Jungkunst, H.; Mitsch, W.; Lehmann, J.; Ramachandran N. et al. (2018): The carbon sequestration potential of terrestrial ecosystems. In: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 73 (6), 145A-152A. DOI: 10.2489/jswc.73.6.145A.

"Terrestrial ecosystems, comprising vegetation and soil in uplands and wetlands, significantly impact the global carbon (C) cycle and, under natural conditions, are a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). However, conversion of natural to managed ecosystems (i.e., agroecosystems, urban lands, and mined lands) depletes ecosystem C stocks, aggravates gaseous emissions, and exacerbates radiative forcing. Thus, the onset of agriculture around 8000 BC presumably transformed these sinks into a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (Ruddiman 2003), mostly CO2, CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O), and depleted the terrestrial (soil, vegetation, and peatlands) C stocks."

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12.11.2018

# New Publications

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Brent, K.; et al. (2018): Carbon Dioxide Removal Geoengineering

Brent, K.; McDonald, J.; McGee, J.; Gogarty B. (2018): Carbon Dioxide Removal Geoengineering. In: Australian Law Journal 92 (10), S. 830–838. Online verfügbar unter http://sites.thomsonreuters.com.au/journals/2018/10/30/australian-law-journal-update-vol-92-pt-10-special-issue-climate-change-and-the-law/.

"Australia has vast land and marine estates so has a natural advantage to contribute to the research, field-testing and development and implementation of CDR. Despite this, there has been little analysis to date of how Australian law might govern CDR research, testing and development. Using case studies of BECCS and ocean fertilisation CDR techniques, this article examines the capacity of current Australian law to govern CDR research. We find that general environmental legislation might provide a basic governance framework for research and field-testing of BECCS and ocean fertilisation, but recommend that specific laws be developed if CDR is to play a prominent role in meeting Australia’s international climate change commitments."

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