03.09.2021

# New Publications

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Wiese, Liesl; et al. (2021): Countries’ commitments to soil organic carbon in Nationally Determined Contributions

Wiese, Liesl; Wollenberg, Eva; Alcántara-Shivapatham, Viridiana; Richards, Meryl; Shelton, Sadie; Hönle, Susanna Esther et al. (2021): Countries’ commitments to soil organic carbon in Nationally Determined Contributions. In Climate Policy 116 (21), pp. 1–15. DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2021.1969883.

"Soil carbon is the major active pool of terrestrial carbon, and as such, soil organic carbon (SOC) targets, policies and measures will be pivotal to achieving global climate targets. SOC sequestration may reduce the net annual greenhouse gas emissions from Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use by between 3% and 71%, while simultaneously supporting various ecosystem services. Accurate SOC accounting and monitoring, however, is constrained by various technical challenges related to indicators, rates of SOC change, measuring the impact of management practices on SOC, and the long-term persistence of sequestered SOC. We assessed countries’ pledges to the Paris Agreement for SOC in agriculture to better understand the level, transparency, and specificity of commitments."

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03.09.2021

# New Publications

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Joseph, Stephen; et al. (2021): How biochar works, and when it doesn't: A review of mechanisms controlling soil and plant responses to biochar

Joseph, Stephen; Cowie, Annette L.; van Zwieten, Lukas; Bolan, Nanthi; Budai, Alice; Buss, Wolfram et al. (2021): How biochar works, and when it doesn't: A review of mechanisms controlling soil and plant responses to biochar. In GCB Bioenergy 755 (1), p. 142582. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12885.

"We synthesized 20 years of research to explain the interrelated processes that determine soil and plant responses to biochar. The properties of biochar and its effects within agricultural ecosystems largely depend on feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. We describe three stages of reactions of biochar in soil: dissolution (1–3 weeks); reactive surface development (1–6 months); and aging (beyond 6 months)."

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03.09.2021

# New Publications

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Leitner, Walter; Schmitz, Marc (2021): Concluding remarks: Carbon dioxide utilization: where are we now?… and where are we going?

Leitner, Walter; Schmitz, Marc (2021): Concluding remarks: Carbon dioxide utilization: where are we now?… and where are we going? In Faraday Discuss 230 (0), pp. 413–426. DOI: 10.1039/D1FD00038A.

"This publication is reminiscent of the 12 principles of CO2 chemistry as formulated in the first Faraday Discussion on CO2 utilization in 2015. Their visionary significance at the time is brought into context with the current developments in society and industry. "What has changed since then?" and "is our enthusiasm still enough?" are only a few questions that are to be answered in the following from today's perspective. The synergy of the use of carbon dioxide (CCU) with the concepts of green chemistry as well as the connection to the energy sector is demonstrated using selected examples from industry and research."

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03.09.2021

# New Publications

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Zolfaghari, Zahra; et al. (2021): Direct air capture from demonstration to commercialization stage: A bibliometric analysis

Zolfaghari, Zahra; Aslani, Alireza; Moshari, Amirhosein; Malekli, Mohammadreza (2021): Direct air capture from demonstration to commercialization stage: A bibliometric analysis. In Int J Energy Res 7 (10), p. 291. DOI: 10.1002/er.7203.

"Among different carbon capturing technologies, direct air capture (DAC) reduces CO2 emissions from air. While the technology readiness level (TRL) of DAC is in the demonstration stage, identifying the commercialization research gaps and possible opportunities can help with diffusion and adoption of the technology. This research uses a knowledge discovery in research databases, based on bibliometric analysis and data mining, to understand DAC research and development's current status and future. Then, we identify the critical areas of the research gap for commercialization."

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03.09.2021

# New Publications

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Wenger, Ariane; et al. (2021): Public perception and acceptance of negative emission technologies – framing effects in Switzerland

Wenger, Ariane; Stauffacher, Michael; Dallo, Irina (2021): Public perception and acceptance of negative emission technologies – framing effects in Switzerland. In Climatic Change 167 (3-4), p. 533. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-021-03150-9.

"Limiting global warming to 1.5 °C requires negative emission technologies (NETs), which remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and permanently store it to offset unavoidable emissions. [...] In 2019, Switzerland adopted a net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 target, which will require the use of NETs. To examine the current Swiss public perception and acceptance of five different NETs, we conducted an online survey with Swiss citizens (N = 693). By using a between-subjects design, we investigated differences in public opinion, perception, and acceptance across three of the most used frames in the scientific literature — technological fix, moral hazard, and climate emergency."

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30.08.2021

# New Publications

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Arastoopour, Hamid; et al. (2022): Application of Multiphase Transport to CO2 Capture

Arastoopour, Hamid; Gidaspow, Dimitri; Lyczkowski, Robert W. (2022): Application of Multiphase Transport to CO2 Capture. In Hamid Arastoopour, Dimitri Gidaspow, Robert W. Lyczkowski (Eds.): Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Mechanical Engineering Series), pp. 177–196.

"Climate change due to emission of fossil energy has created a world-wide interest in capturing carbon dioxide. Thus cost-effective capturing of the CO2 before it is emitted to the atmosphere and then utilizing and storing it are becoming critically important. Energy loss due to CO2 sorption and desorption can be significantly reduced using solid sorbents in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system with a regeneration system that may be performed at lower pressure. To successfully scale up carbon capture CFB processes, a rigorous numerical modeling tool, such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), is needed to fill the gap between the lab/bench scale and the large scales needed for demonstration. In this research, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) researchers used the CFD approach to simulate CO2 sorption and regeneration in a CFB system using sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, and MgO-based solid sorbents. CFD simulation of the entire CFB loop was performed. The solid circulation rate, extent of CO2 removal, and regeneration of solid sorbents were calculated in the entire loop. This simulation with the regeneration reactor operating at reduced pressure shows a more efficient carbon capture system."

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30.08.2021

# New Publications

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Tutolo, Benjamin M.; et al. (2021): Alkalinity Generation Constraints on Basalt Carbonation for Carbon Dioxide Removal at the Gigaton-per-Year Scale

Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Awolayo, Adedapo; Brown, Calista (2021): Alkalinity Generation Constraints on Basalt Carbonation for Carbon Dioxide Removal at the Gigaton-per-Year Scale. In Environmental science & technology. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c02733.

"The world adds about 51 Gt of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere each year, which will yield dire global consequences without aggressive action in the form of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and other technologies. A suggested guideline requires that proposed CDR technologies be capable of removing at least 1% of current annual emissions, about half a gigaton, from the atmosphere each year once fully implemented for them to be worthy of pursuit. Basalt carbonation coupled to direct air capture (DAC) can exceed this baseline, but it is likely that implementation at the gigaton-per-year scale will require increasing per-well CO2 injection rates to a point where CO2 forms a persistent, free-phase CO2 plume in the basaltic subsurface. Here, we use a series of thermodynamic calculations and basalt dissolution simulations to show that the development of a persistent plume will reduce carbonation efficiency (i.e., the amount of CO2 mineralized per kilogram of basalt dissolved) relative to existing field projects and experimental studies."

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30.08.2021

# New Publications

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Zhang, Yan; et al. (2021): Data from: How large is the design space for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering?

Zhang, Yan; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Visioni, Daniele; Kravitz, Ben (2021): Data from: How large is the design space for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering?

"Data in support of research: Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), as a possible supplement to emission reduction, has the potential to reduce some of the risks associated with climate change. Adding aerosols to the lower stratosphere results in global cooling. However, different choices for the aerosol injection latitude(s) and season(s) have been shown to lead to significant differences in regional surface climate, introducing a design aspect to SAI. Past research has shown that there are at least three independent degrees of freedom (DOF) that can be used to simultaneously manage three different climate goals. Knowing how many more DOFs there are, and thus how many independent climate goals can be simultaneously managed, is essential to understanding fundamental limits of how well SAI might compensate for anthropogenic climate change, and evaluating any underlying trade-offs between different climate goals. Here we quantify the number of meaningfully-independent DOFs of the SAI design space."

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25.08.2021

# New Publications

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Lezaun, Javier (2021): Hugging the Shore: Tackling Marine Carbon Dioxide Removal as a Local Governance Problem

Lezaun, Javier (2021): Hugging the Shore: Tackling Marine Carbon Dioxide Removal as a Local Governance Problem. In Front. Clim. 3, p. 38. DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2021.684063.

"This Perspective explores the local governance of ocean-based carbon dioxide removal (CDR). Proposals to enhance the ability of oceans and marine ecosystems to absorb atmospheric CO2 are often discussed as examples of “geoengineering,” but this framing obscures the site-specific nature of most of the suggested interventions. The Perspective outlines some of the key local dimensions of marine CDR as currently imagined, and suggests a framework for increasing local participation in its assessment."

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25.08.2021

# New Publications

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Gernon, Thomas M.; et al. (2021): Global chemical weathering dominated by continental arcs since the mid-Palaeozoic

Gernon, Thomas M.; Hincks, Thea K.; Merdith, Andrew S.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Foster, Gavin L. et al. (2021): Global chemical weathering dominated by continental arcs since the mid-Palaeozoic. In: Nat. Geosci. 28, S. 611. DOI: 10.1038/s41561-021-00806-0.

"Earth’s plate-tectonic activity regulates the carbon cycle and, hence, climate, via volcanic outgassing and silicate-rock weathering. Mountain building, arc–continent collisions and clustering of continents in the tropics have all been invoked as controlling the weathering flux, with arcs also acting as a major contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, these processes have largely been considered in isolation when in reality they are all tightly coupled. To properly account for interactions among these processes, and the inherent multi-million-year time lags at play in the Earth system, we need to characterize their complex interdependencies. Here we analyse these interdependencies over the past 400 million years using a Bayesian network to identify primary relationships, time lags and drivers of the global chemical weathering signal."

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