13.09.2021

# New Publications

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Kravitz, Ben; Sikka, Tina (2021): Conducting more inclusive solar geoengineering research: A feminist science framework

Kravitz, Ben; Sikka, Tina (2021): Conducting more inclusive solar geoengineering research: A feminist science framework. In arXiv.org Physics and Society. Available online at https://arxiv.org/abs/2109.04217.

"Solar geoengineering, or deliberate climate modification, has been receiving increased attention in recent years. Given the far-reaching consequences of any potential solar geoengineering deployments, it is prudent to identify inherent biases, blind spots, and other potential issues at all stages of the research process. Here we articulate a feminist science-based framework to concretely describe how solar geoengineering researchers can be more inclusive of different perspectives, in the process illuminating potential implicit bias and enhancing the conclusions that can be gained from their studies. Importantly, this framework is an adoptable method of practice that can be refined, with the aim of conducting better research in solar geoengineering. As an illustration, we retrospectively apply this framework to a well-read solar geoengineering study, improving transparency by revealing its implicit values, conclusions made from its evidence base, and the methodologies that study pursues. We conclude with a set of recommendations for the geoengineering research community whereby more inclusive research can become a regular part of practice. Throughout this process, we illustrate how feminist science scholars can use this approach to study climate modeling."

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10.09.2021

# New Publications

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Slesinski, Daniel; Litzelman, Scott (2021): How Low-Carbon Heat Requirements for Direct Air Capture of CO2 Can Enable the Expansion of Firm Low-Carbon Electricity Generation Resources

Slesinski, Daniel; Litzelman, Scott (2021): How Low-Carbon Heat Requirements for Direct Air Capture of CO2 Can Enable the Expansion of Firm Low-Carbon Electricity Generation Resources. In Front. Clim. 3, p. 3732. DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2021.728719.

"A rapid build-out of direct air capture (DAC), deployed in order to mitigate climate change, will require significant amounts of both low-carbon thermal and electrical energy. Firm low-carbon power resources, including nuclear, geothermal, or natural gas with carbon capture, which also will become more highly valued as variable renewable energy penetration increases, would be able to provide both heat and electricity for DAC. In this study, we examined the techno-economic synergy between a hypothetical DAC plant in the year 2030 and a nuclear small modular reactor, and determined two avenues for which this relationship could benefit the nuclear plant."

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10.09.2021

# New Publications

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Bonou, Frederic; et al. (2021): Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols impacts on West African monsoon precipitation using GeoMIP Models

Bonou, Frederic; Da-Allada, Casimir Yelognisse; Baloïtcha, Ezinvi; Alamou, Eric; Biao, Eliezer Iboukoun; Zandagba, Josué et al. (2021): Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols impacts on West African monsoon precipitation using GeoMIP Models. In Earth and Space Science Open Archive. DOI: 10.1002/essoar.10507841.1.

"Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering (SAG) is proposed to offset global warming; the use of this approach can impact the hydrological cycle. We use simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (G3 simulation) to analyze the impacts of SAG on precipitation (P) and to determine its responsible causes in West Africa and Sahel region."

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08.09.2021

# New Publications

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Tully, Colin; et al. (2021): Cirrus cloud thinning using a more physically-based ice microphysics scheme in the ECHAM-HAM GCM [preprint], in review

Tully, Colin; Neubauer, David; Omanovic, Nadja; Lohmann, Ulrike (2021): Cirrus cloud thinning using a more physically-based ice microphysics scheme in the ECHAM-HAM GCM [preprint], in review. In Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-685.

"Cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) is a relatively new radiation management proposal to counteract anthropogenic climate warming by targeting Earth’s terrestrial radiation balance. The efficacy of this method was presented in several general circulation model (GCM) studies that showed widely varied radiative responses, originating in part from the differences in the representation of cirrus ice microphysics between the different GCMs. The recent implementation of a new, more physically based ice microphysics scheme (Predicted Particle Properties, P3) that abandons ice hydrometeor size class separation into the ECHAM-HAM GCM, coupled to a new approach for calculating cloud fractions that increases the relative humidity (RH) thresholds for cirrus cloud formation, motivated a reassessment of CCT efficacy."

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08.09.2021

# New Publications

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Ricke, Katharine; Moreno-Cruz, Juan (2020): Geo-Wedges: A Portfolio Approach to Geoengineering the Climate

Ricke, Katharine; Moreno-Cruz, Juan (2020): Geo-Wedges: A Portfolio Approach to Geoengineering the Climate. In : Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, vol. 531: Elsevier, p. 362.

"A host of methods to combat climate change through geoengineering could be available soon. These methods can reduce the concentrations of carbon in the atmosphere, limit the amount of incoming solar radiation or perturb the Earth's radiation balance in other ways. They may be implemented to slow down the rate of temperature change and limit the impacts of climate change. Any one technology could be too risky or costly to do the job by itself, but a coordinated intervention that employs different methods with diverse attributes could achieve climate impact reduction goals while limiting risk."

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06.09.2021

# New Publications

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Wu, Zitao; Zhai, Haibo (2021): Consumptive life cycle water use of biomass-to-power plants with carbon capture and sequestration

Wu, Zitao; Zhai, Haibo (2021): Consumptive life cycle water use of biomass-to-power plants with carbon capture and sequestration. In Applied Energy 303, p. 117702. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.117702.

"Biomass-to-power conversion provides the most promising route to bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS). The objectives of this study are to estimate the water consumption of biomass-to-power plants with CCS and then quantify its variability and uncertainty on a life cycle basis. The fuel-based life cycle analysis reveals that compared to the case of complete coal combustion with CCS, co-firing biomass at coal-fired power plants with CCS significantly increases the life cycle blue water consumption, depending on the type, co-firing rate, and production location of biomass; and dedicated biomass combustion with CCS further increases the life cycle blue water consumption by a factor of more than 55."

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06.09.2021

# New Publications

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Rodrigues, Renato; et al. (2021): Narrative-driven alternative roads to achieve mid-century CO2 net neutrality in Europe

Rodrigues, Renato; Pietzcker, Robert; Fragkos, Panagiotis; Price, James; McDowall, Will; Siskos, Pelopidas et al. (2021): Narrative-driven alternative roads to achieve mid-century CO2 net neutrality in Europe. In Energy, p. 121908. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2021.121908.

"The tightened climate mitigation targets of the EU green deal raise an important question: Which strategy should be used to achieve carbon emissions net neutrality? This study explores stakeholder-designed narratives of the future energy system development within the deep decarbonization context. European carbon net-neutrality goals are put under test in a model comparison exercise using state of the art Energy-Environment-Economy (E3) models: ETM-UCL, PRIMES and REMIND."

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06.09.2021

# New Publications

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Rickels, Wilfried; Schwinger, Jörg (2021): Implications of temperature overshoot dynamics for climate and carbon dioxide removal policies in the DICE model

Rickels, Wilfried; Schwinger, Jörg (2021): Implications of temperature overshoot dynamics for climate and carbon dioxide removal policies in the DICE model. In Environ. Res. Lett. Available online at http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ac22c0.

"Assessing climate policies involving temporary overshoot of temperature targets require an accurate representation of carbon cycle and climate dynamics. Here, we compare temperature overshoot climate policies obtained with the Dynamic Integrated Climate–Economy (DICE) integrated assessment model using two different climate-carbon cycle sub-models: First, the original DICE implementation, and second an implementation of the Finite Amplitude Impulse Response (FaIR) simple climate model. We analyze in a cost-effectiveness framework the minimum abatement and carbon dioxide removal costs for compliance against a (future) ceiling on temperatures."

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06.09.2021

# New Publications

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Wang, Nan; et al. (2021): What went wrong? Learning from three decades of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) pilot and demonstration projects

Wang, Nan; Akimoto, Keigo; Nemet, Gregory F. (2021): What went wrong? Learning from three decades of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) pilot and demonstration projects. In Energy Policy 158, p. 112546. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112546.

"The delivery of operational clean energy projects at scales is essential for addressing climate change. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCUS) is among the most important clean technology, however, most CCUS projects initiated in the past three decades have failed. This study statistically evaluates the reasons for this unfavourable outcome by estimating a hazard model for 263 CCUS projects undertaken between 1995 and 2018."

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03.09.2021

# New Publications

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Mackler, Sasha; et al. (2021): A policy agenda for gigaton-scale carbon management

Mackler, Sasha; Fishman, Xan; Broberg, Danny (2021): A policy agenda for gigaton-scale carbon management. In The Electricity Journal 34 (7), p. 106999. DOI: 10.1016/j.tej.2021.106999.

"the scale of the climate challenge is monumental. Today’s global economy still relies on fossil fuels for 84 % of its energy needs; these fuels are extracted, transported, processed, and consumed through large, intricate, and often interconnected systems that developed over more than a century and reflect trillions of dollars of invested capital. In 2019, the United States accounted for 6 billion of the 40 billion tons of greenhouse gases emitted globally. In the span of a few decades, we must transition to an economy with net-zero emissions. The scale of this challenge—technologically, financially, logistically, and politically—is difficult to overstate. And success will not be possible unless critical clean energy and climate mitigation technologies, several of which are still in the nascent stages of commercialization and deployment, are scaled by several orders of magnitude within the next two decades. Technologies for managing carbon emissions, including technologies that can capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources or remove CO2 from the atmosphere, are among these high priority solutions, and must be scaled to the gigaton level by 2050."

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