18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Borth, Amanda C.; Nicholson, Simon (2021): A Deliberative Orientation to Governing Carbon Dioxide Removal: Actionable Recommendations for National-Level Action

Borth, Amanda C.; Nicholson, Simon (2021): A Deliberative Orientation to Governing Carbon Dioxide Removal: Actionable Recommendations for National-Level Action. In Front. Clim. 3. DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2021.684209

"Effective and legitimate governance of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) requires that the needs, interests, and perspectives of those liable to bear the burdens of CDR's effects be present in decision-making and oversight processes. This ideal has been widely recognized in prior academic work. How, though, in a practical sense, is this deliberative aspect of CDR governance to be understood? In this policy brief, we look at the future incorporation of carbon removal pledges into the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) of countries under the Paris Agreement, and we argue for and explore a deliberative orientation when it comes to the inclusion of CDR into country-level climate change response goals. The aim is to provide practical guidance on deliberation as a toolkit and set of practices."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Quaglia, Ilaria; et al. (2021): A novel approach to sulfate geoengineering with surface emissions of carbonyl sulfide

Quaglia, Ilaria; Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Kravitz, Ben (2021): A novel approach to sulfate geoengineering with surface emissions of carbonyl sulfide. (Preprint). In Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-813.

"Sulfate geoengineering (SG) methods based on lower stratospheric tropical injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been widely discussed in recent years, focusing on the direct and indirect effects they would have on the climate system. Here a potential alternative method is discussed, where sulfur emissions are located at the surface in the form of carbonyl sulfide (COS) gas. A time-dependent chemistry-climate model experiment is designed from year 2021 to 2055, assuming a 40 Tg-S/yr artificial global flux of COS, geographically distributed following the present day anthropogenic COS surface emissions. The budget of COS and sulfur species is discussed, as well as the effects of SG-COS on the stratospheric sulfate aerosol optical depth (Δ τ = 0.080 in years 2046–2055), aerosol effective radius (0.46 μm), surface SOx deposition (+8.7 %) and tropopause radiative forcing (RF) (−2.0 W/m2 for clear sky conditions and −1.5 W/m2 including the cloud adjustment). Indirect effects on ozone, methane and stratospheric water vapor are also considered, along with the COS direct contribution (with an overall gas phase global radiative forcing of +0.23 W/m2). According to our model results, the resulting net RF of this SG-COS experiment is −1.3 W/m2 for the year 2050, and it is comparable to the corresponding RF of −1.7 W/m2 obtained with a sustained injection of 4 Tg-S/yr in the tropical lower stratosphere in the form of SO2 (SG-SO2, able to produce a comparable increase of the sulfate aerosol optical depth). Significant changes of the stratospheric ozone response are found in SG-COS with respect to SG-SO2 (+4.9 DU versus +1.5 DU, globally). According to the model results, the resulting UVB perturbation at the surface accounts to −4.3 % as a global-annual average (versus −2.4 % in the SG-SO2 case), with a springtime Antarctic decrease of −2.7 % (versus a +5.8 % increase in the SG-SO2 experiment). Overall, we find that an increase in COS surface emission may be feasible, and produce a more latitudinally-uniform forcing without the need for the deployment of stratospheric aircrafts."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Mohan, Aniruddh; et al. (2021): UNFCCC must confront the political economy of net-negative emissions

Mohan, Aniruddh; Geden, Oliver; Fridahl, Mathias; Buck, Holly Jean; Peters, Glen P. (2021): UNFCCC must confront the political economy of net-negative emissions. In One Earth. DOI: 10.1016/j.oneear.2021.10.001.

"Recent demands by developing countries, like India, that developed countries need to reach net-negative emissions, must be negotiated seriously under the UNFCCC. Failure to acknowledge that limiting global average temperature rise to 1.5°C leaves very little carbon budget for equitable redistribution risks further ambiguity on how to achieve the Paris Agreement’s goals."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Swoboda, Philipp; et al. (2021): Remineralizing soils? The agricultural usage of silicate rock powders: A review

Swoboda, Philipp; Döring, Thomas F.; Hamer, Martin (2021): Remineralizing soils? The agricultural usage of silicate rock powders: A review. In Science of the Total Environment, p. 150976. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150976.

"Soil nutrient depletion threatens global food security and has been seriously underestimated for potassium (K) and several micronutrients. This is particularly the case for highly weathered soils in tropical countries, where classical soluble fertilizers are often not affordable or not accessible. One way to replenish macro- and micronutrients are ground silicate rock powders (SRPs). Rock forming silicate minerals contain most nutrients essential for higher plants, yet slow and inconsistent weathering rates have restricted their use in the past. Recent findings, however, challenge past agronomic objections which insufficiently addressed the factorial complexity of the weathering process. This review therefore first presents a framework with the most relevant factors for the weathering of SRPs through which several outcomes of prior studies can be explained."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Liu, Xuebang; et al. (2021): European Carbon Uptake has not Benefited from Vegetation Greening

Liu, Xuebang; He, Bin; Guo, Lanlan; Huang, Ling; Yuan, Wenping; Chen, Xiuzhi et al. (2021): European Carbon Uptake has not Benefited from Vegetation Greening. In Geophysical Research Letters. DOI: 10.1029/2021GL094870.

"Substantial evidences indicate a widespread increase in European vegetation greenness since the 1980s due to CO2 fertilization effects (eCO2) and climate warming, but the impact of this process on the regional terrestrial carbon cycle has not been systematically evaluated. Using empirical models based on eddy covariance and process-based models, we found that the widespread greening did not contribute to an increase in European carbon uptake (decrease in net ecosystem exchange) with a non-significant trend from 2000 to 2018. The greening-associated increase in gross primary productivity (GPP) is offset by the simultaneous increase in ecosystem respiration (TER). Moreover, frequent heatwaves cause stronger reductions in GPP than TER, preventing the increase of carbon uptake. These results reveal the double-edged sword effect of warming on European ecosystems and will help constrain regional models."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Talei, Saeed; Soleimani, Zahra (2021): Comparative Analysis of Three Different Negative Emission Technologies, BECCS, Absorption and Adsorption of Atmospheric CO 2

Talei, Saeed; Soleimani, Zahra (2021): Comparative Analysis of Three Different Negative Emission Technologies, BECCS, Absorption and Adsorption of Atmospheric CO 2. In Civil and Environmental Engineering Reports 31 (3), pp. 99–117. DOI: 10.2478/ceer-2021-0036.

"Negative Emission Technologies (NETs) are generally considered as vital methods for achieving climate goals. To limit the rise in the global average temperature below 2 °C, a large number of countries that participated in the Paris agreement was virtually unanimous about the effective collaboration among members for the reduction of CO2 emissions throughout this century. NETs on the ground that can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, provide an active option to achieve this goal. In this contribution, we compare limiting factors, cost, and capacity of three different NETs, including bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), absorption and adsorption. Although there are several advantages for capturing CO2, still some constraints regarding the high operational cost of NETs and industrial condition of these technologies as a method of climate change mitigation is not clear. Thereby no single process can be considered as a comprehensive solution. Indeed, any developed technologies, in turn, have a contribution to the reduction of CO2 concentration. Extensive research needs to be done to assess and decrease NETs costs and limitations."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Wei, Yi-Ming; et al. (2021): Pathway comparison of limiting global warming to 2°C

Wei, Yi-Ming; Liu, Li-Jing; Liang, Qiao-Mei; Yu, Bi-Ying; Liu, Lan-Cui; Yao, Yun-Fei et al. (2021): Pathway comparison of limiting global warming to 2°C. In Energy and Climate Change, p. 100063. DOI: 10.1016/j.egycc.2021.100063.

"The Paris Agreement has set a goal to limit the global average temperature rise to within 2°C from the pre-industrial level. This study aims to explore the possible pathways to achieve this challenging goal by using the Global Energy and Environmental Policy Analysis module (GEEPA) of the China's Climate Change Integrated Assessment Model (C3IAM). Results show that a target temperature of 2°C dramatically reduces global CO2 emissions in the future. Under model parameters, by the end of this century, total global CO2 emissions will fall below 5 Gt, and cumulated CO2 emissions will be reduced to less than 1000 Gt. The key to meeting the 2°C target lies in the low-carbon transformation of energy and electricity systems. Implementation of climate policies and technical measures will progressively reduce conventional fossil energy consumption and replace it with low-carbon energy solutions. The electricity structure will gradually shift from dominance by conventional fossil energy to low-carbon energy, and even to zero-carbon electricity generation. We found that emission reduction pathways that include large amounts of fossil fuel power generation with CCS relying on subsidies may create higher GDP loss, but also that later penetration of negative emission technology can increase the carbon emission budget in the early stage."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Fuhrman, Jay; et al. (2021): The role of direct air capture and negative emissions technologies in the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways towards +1.5˚C and +2˚C future

Fuhrman, Jay; Clarens, Andres; Calvin, Katherine V.; Doney, Scott C.; Edmonds, James A.; O'Rourke, Patrick et al. (2021): The role of direct air capture and negative emissions technologies in the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways towards +1.5˚C and +2˚C futures. In Environ. Res. Lett. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ac2db0.

"The development of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and associated integrated assessment modeling (IAM) exercises did not include direct air capture with carbon storage (DACCS) in their scenarios. Recent progress in DACCS commercialization suggests it could be a viable means of removing CO2 from the atmosphere with far lower land intensity than bioenergy with carbon capture or afforestation but with a higher energy demands. In addition, several forms of DACCS are in development, with different costs and energy demands, as well as potential for future efficiency improvements. Here, we use the Global Change Analysis Model (GCAM) to understand the role of DACCS across all 5 SSPs for the below 2˚C and below 1.5˚C end-of-century warming goals. We assess DACCS deployment relative to other carbon capture methods, and its side effects for global energy, water, land systems. We find that DACCS could play a 10-40 Gt-CO2-yr-1 role in many of these scenarios, particularly those with delayed climate policy and or higher challenges to emissions mitigation. Our "sustainable development" scenarios, consistent with SSP1, have far smaller deployments of DACCS and other negative emissions owing to immediate climate policy onset, greater ease of "conventional mitigation" and tighter constraints on future negative emissions."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Ferreira, Vera; et al. (2021): Stakeholders' perceptions of appropriate nature-based solutions in the urban context

Ferreira, Vera; Barreira, Ana Paula; Loures, Luís; Antunes, Dulce; Panagopoulos, Thomas (2021): Stakeholders' perceptions of appropriate nature-based solutions in the urban context. In Journal of environmental management 298, p. 113502. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113502.

"The concept of nature-based solutions (NBSs) has become increasingly popular among urban policymakers and planners to help them tackle the urban challenges arising from urban expansion and climate change. Stakeholders' involvement is a fundamental step, and stakeholders' perceptions and preferences can affect the development of NBS projects. This study aims to identify stakeholders' perceptions of the most critical urban challenges, the priority interventions, the preferred NBSs and the benefits of the NBSs, and to identify the determinants of these perceptions. A survey was administered to assess stakeholders' perceptions and views on implementing NBSs in two Portuguese cities with distinct urban, geographical, and socio-economic contexts. A binary logistic regression model was used to understand the determinants of the likelihood of the stakeholders’ answers. According to the stakeholders, climate change is one of the main concerns in the urban context. It is usually associated with the incidence of heatwaves and water scarcity. Additionally, stakeholders are concerned about the low quantity and poor management of green spaces (GSs). They believe that it will be necessary to increase the GS, to recover some degraded areas, and to increase mobility. The preferred NBSs were planting more urban trees, making green shaded areas, and rehabilitating riverbanks. The main expected benefits were benefits for leisure and relaxation, reductions in air temperature, purer air, and improvements in public health. The results showed mostly coherent connections between the main concerns/priorities of the stakeholders and the perceived NBS benefits; however, some stakeholders did not present coherent connections, indicating low awareness of the current policy for implementing NBSs to overcome existing and future urban challenges."

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11.10.2021

# New Publications

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Saeed Arabi, S. M.; et al. (2021): Capturing atmospheric carbon dioxide by depleting inorganic carbon in municipal wastewater

Arabi, S. SaeedM.; Alicata, Jackson; Hanigan, David; Hiibel, Sage R. (2021): Capturing atmospheric carbon dioxide by depleting inorganic carbon in municipal wastewater. In International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 111, p. 103472. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2021.103472.

"CO2 removal from the atmosphere will likely be necessary to limit global warming to 2 ℃. Existing wastewater infrastructure in the U.S. conveys a total of 588 Mt of inorganic carbon to wastewater treatment plants, which are designed to remove organic carbon, but do not remove the inorganic fraction. We believe that embedded energy used for wastewater conveyance may be leveraged to remove inorganic carbon and produce wastewater treatment plants that are net carbon negative. To demonstrate this, we optimized a bench-scale wastewater carbon-capture system composed of a gas permeable membrane and a pressurized feed. We investigated the effects of multiple physicochemical parameters on inorganic carbon removal. The best performance resulted in removal of 15% inorganic carbon from the feed stream. Deploying similar full-scale systems across U.S. wastewater infrastructure without addition of acid would remove up to 12.9 Mt-C/yr. Hydrochrloric acid addition to one pH unit below the bicarbonate pKa would increase removal to 30.5 Mt-C/yr, but this is partially offset by CO2 emissions from hydrochloric acid production, resulting in a net removal of 22.6 Mt-C/yr. Further research should focus on increasing removal efficiency, which, at 100% removal, would offset 11.2% of total U.S. CO2 gas emissions."

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