20.09.2021

# New Publications

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Zhang, Xiaoyu; et al. (2021): High-Performance Binary Mo–Ni Catalysts for Efficient Carbon Removal during Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane

Zhang, Xiaoyu; Deng, Jiang; Pupucevski, Max; Impeng, Sarawoot; Yang, Bo; Chen, Guorong et al. (2021): High-Performance Binary Mo–Ni Catalysts for Efficient Carbon Removal during Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane. In ACS Catal., pp. 12087–12095. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.1c02124.

"Dry reforming of methane (DRM) can convert greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) into value-added syngas (CO and H2), which is one of the promising approaches to achieve carbon neutrality. Designing coking resistant catalysts is still a challenge for an efficient DRM reaction. Here, we developed an efficient binary Mo–Ni catalyst through elucidating the promotional role of Mo in boosting the coking resistance of Ni-based catalysts during the DRM."

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20.09.2021

# New Publications

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Tang, Weiyi; et al. (2021): Widespread phytoplankton blooms triggered by 2019-2020 Australian wildfires

Tang, Weiyi; Llort, Joan; Weis, Jakob; Perron, Morgane M. G.; Basart, Sara; Li, Zuchuan et al. (2021): Widespread phytoplankton blooms triggered by 2019-2020 Australian wildfires. In Nature 597 (7876), pp. 370–375. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03805-8.

"Droughts and climate-change-driven warming are leading to more frequent and intense wildfires1,2,3, arguably contributing to the severe 2019–2020 Australian wildfires4. The environmental and ecological impacts of the fires include loss of habitats and the emission of substantial amounts of atmospheric aerosols5,6,7. Aerosol emissions from wildfires can lead to the atmospheric transport of macronutrients and bio-essential trace metals such as nitrogen and iron, respectively8,9,10. It has been suggested that the oceanic deposition of wildfire aerosols can relieve nutrient limitations and, consequently, enhance marine productivity11,12, but direct observations are lacking. Here we use satellite and autonomous biogeochemical Argo float data to evaluate the effect of 2019–2020 Australian wildfire aerosol deposition on phytoplankton productivity."

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20.09.2021

# New Publications

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Akimoto, Keigo; et al. (2021): Climate change mitigation measures for global net-zero emissions and the roles of CO2 capture and utilization and direct air capture

Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Oda, Junichiro; Kanaboshi, Haruo; Nakano, Yuko (2021): Climate change mitigation measures for global net-zero emissions and the roles of CO2 capture and utilization and direct air capture. In Energy and Climate Change, p. 100057. DOI: 10.1016/j.egycc.2021.100057.

"Many existing scenario studies show the need for large amounts of biomass energy with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS) to achieve net-zero emissions, requiring high mitigation costs. This study provides comprehensive and cost-efficient technological portfolios for both energy supply and demand, and reveals the roles of carbon dioxide utilization (CCU) and direct air capture (DAC) for achieving global net-zero emissions by using a technology-rich global energy systems and climate change mitigation model which can assess them comprehensively, while considering several kinds of uncertainties. According to the analyses, DAC will be able to dramatically reduce emission reduction costs and alleviate dependence on BECCS. There are no feasible solutions for temperature increases below 1.5 °C in 2100 with 66% achievability under a temperature overshoot pathway unless DAC is used. Carbon free or nearly carbon free hydrogen plays important roles for net-zero emissions, and CCU helps increase the usability of hydrogen via synthetic fuels, and thus contributes to net-zero emissions. The relationships between DAC and CCU are very complex; the reductions in marginal abatement costs of carbon dioxide (CO2) due to DAC will reduce the roles of CCU around 2050 for many of the pathways to net-zero emissions. Meanwhile, for deeper reductions of CO2 emissions including net negative emissions in 2100, DAC will increase the roles of CCU by providing recovered CO2 from DAC, and also expand the opportunity for the use of recovered CO2 from fossil fuel combustion for synthetic fuels, because the related emissions are offset by larger negative emissions from the combination of DAC and CO2 storage (DACCS)."

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20.09.2021

# New Publications

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Heyen, Daniel; Lehtomaa, Jere (2021): Solar Geoengineering Governance: A Dynamic Framework of Farsighted Coalition Formation

Heyen, Daniel; Lehtomaa, Jere (2021): Solar Geoengineering Governance: A Dynamic Framework of Farsighted Coalition Formation. In Oxford Open Climate Change. DOI: 10.1093/oxfclm/kgab010.

"Climate interventions with solar geoengineering could reduce climate damages if deployed in a globally coordinated regime. In the absence of such a regime, however, strategic incentives of single actors might result in detrimental outcomes. A well-known concern is that a "free-driver" (Weitzman 2015), the country with the strongest preference for cooling, might unilaterally set the global thermostat to its preferred level, thus imposing damages on others. Governance structures, i.e. more or less formal institutional arrangements between countries, could steer the decentralized geoengineering deployment towards the preferable global outcome. In this paper, we show that the coalition formation literature (an excellent summary is Ray & Vohra 2015) can make a valuable contribution to assessing the relative merit of different governance schemes."

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17.09.2021

# New Publications

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Pritchard, Rose (2021): Politics, power and planting trees

Pritchard, Rose (2021): Politics, power and planting trees. In Nat Sustain 365, p. 76. DOI: 10.1038/s41893-021-00769-5.

"Tree planting is often proposed as part of the solution to climate change. A new study demonstrates why it is critical to see this as a social science issue, not just an ecological one."

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17.09.2021

# New Publications

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Bradfer‐Lawrence, Tom; et al. (2021): The potential contribution of terrestrial nature‐based solutions to a national ‘net zero’ climate target

Bradfer‐Lawrence, Tom; Finch, Tom; Bradbury, Richard B.; Buchanan, Graeme M.; Midgley, Andrew; Field, Rob H. (2021): The potential contribution of terrestrial nature‐based solutions to a national ‘net zero’ climate target. In J Appl Ecol 137 (3), p. 32. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.14003.

"Many national governments have incorporated nature-based solutions (NbS) in their plans to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. However, uncertainties persist regarding both feasibility and consequences of major NbS deployment. Using the United Kingdom as a national-level case study, we examined the potential contribution of three terrestrial NbS: peatland restoration, saltmarsh creation and woodland creation."

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17.09.2021

# New Publications

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Coleman, Eric A.; et al. (2021): Limited effects of tree planting on forest canopy cover and rural livelihoods in Northern India

Coleman, Eric A.; Schultz, Bill; Ramprasad, Vijay; Fischer, Harry; Rana, Pushpendra; Filippi, Anthony M. et al. (2021): Limited effects of tree planting on forest canopy cover and rural livelihoods in Northern India. In Nat Sustain 2, p. 390. DOI: 10.1038/s41893-021-00761-z.

"Many countries have adopted large-scale tree planting programmes as a climate mitigation strategy and to support local livelihoods. We evaluate a series of large-scale tree planting programmes using data collected from historical Landsat imagery in the state of Himachal Pradesh in Northern India. Using this panel dataset, we use an event study design to estimate the socioeconomic and biophysical impacts over decades of these programmes. We find that tree plantings have not, on average, increased the proportion of forest canopy cover and have modestly shifted forest composition away from the broadleaf varieties valued by local people. Further cross-sectional analysis, from a household livelihood survey, shows that tree planting supports little direct use by local people. We conclude that decades of expensive tree planting programmes in this region have not proved effective. This result suggests that large-scale tree planting may sometimes fail to achieve its climate mitigation and livelihood goals."

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17.09.2021

# New Publications

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O'Lear, Shannon; et al. (2021): Environmental Geopolitics of Climate Engineering Proposals in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report

O'Lear, Shannon; Hane, Madisen K.; Neal, Abigail P.; Stallings, Lauren Louise M.; Wadood, Sierra; Park, Jimin (2021): Environmental Geopolitics of Climate Engineering Proposals in the IPCC 5th Assessment Report. In Front. Clim. 3, p. 423. DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2021.718553.

"Environmental geopolitics offers an analytical approach that considers how environmental themes are brought into the service of geopolitical agendas. Of particular concern are claims about environment-related security and risk and the justification of actions (or inactions) proposed to deal with those claims. Environmental geopolitical analysis focuses on geographical knowledge and how that knowledge is generated and applied to stabilize specific understandings of the world. Climate engineering is a realm in which certain kinds of geographical knowledge, in the form of scientific interpretations of environmental interactions, are utilized to support a selective agenda that, despite claims about benefiting people and environments on a global scale, may be shown to reinforce uneven relationships of power as well as patterns of injustice. This paper focuses on how the IPCC AR5 discusses and portrays climate engineering."

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17.09.2021

# New Publications

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Austin, Maura M.K.; Converse, Benjamin A. (2021): In search of weakened resolve: Does climate-engineering awareness decrease individuals’ commitment to mitigation?

Austin, Maura M.K.; Converse, Benjamin A. (2021): In search of weakened resolve: Does climate-engineering awareness decrease individuals’ commitment to mitigation? In Journal of Environmental Psychology 356 (6335), p. 101690. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101690.

"As climate predictions become more dire, it is increasingly clear that society cannot rely on mitigation alone. In response, climatologists and engineers have been developing climate-engineering technology to directly intervene on the climate through strategies such as solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal. While these technologies have some encouraging features, they also involve risk on many dimensions. One behavioral risk that concerns many observers is the possibility that the prominence of climate-engineering scenarios could decrease the public's commitment to mitigation, a concern variously described as moral hazard or weakened resolve. Across 8 experiments (N = 2514) we tested whether exposure to naturalistic information about climate-engineering technology decreases individuals' commitment to mitigation efforts."

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13.09.2021

# New Publications

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Otto, Danny; et al. (2021): Exploring Narratives on Negative Emissions Technologies in the Post-Paris Era

Otto, Danny; Thoni, Terese; Wittstock, Felix; Beck, Silke (2021): Exploring Narratives on Negative Emissions Technologies in the Post-Paris Era. In Front. Clim. 3. DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2021.684135.

"Negative Emissions Technologies (NETs)—technologies that remove additional greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere—are receiving greater political attention. They are introduced as a backstop method for achieving temperature targets. A focal point in the discussions on NETs are the emission and mitigation pathways assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Drawing on perspectives from Science & Technology Studies (STS) and discourse analysis, the paper explores the emergence of narratives about NETs and reconstructs how the treatment of NETs within IPCC assessments became politicized terrain of configuration for essentially conflicting interests concerning long-term developments in the post-Paris regime."

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