10.12.2018

# New Publications

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Mandal, S.; et al. (2019): Transforming Atmospheric CO2 into Alternative Fuels. A Metal-Free Approach under Ambient Conditions

Mandal, S.; Sau, S.; Bhattacharjee, R.; Hota, P.; Vardhanapu, P.; vijaykumar, g. et al. (2019): Transforming Atmospheric CO2 into Alternative Fuels. A Metal-Free Approach under Ambient Conditions. In: Chem. Sci. DOI: 10.1039/C8SC03581D.

"The capture of CO2 from air can even proceed in the solid state via the formation of a bicarbonate complex (aNHC-H, HCO3, B(OH)3), which was also structurally characterized. A detailed mechanism for this process is proposed based on tandem density functional theory calculations and experiments."

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07.12.2018

# New Publications

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Akademien der Wissenschaften Schweiz (2018): Reverse emissions or influence solar radiation: Is “geoengineering” worthwhile, feasible and if so, at what price?

Akademien der Wissenschaften Schweiz (2018): Reverse emissions or influence solar radiation: Is “geoengineering” worthwhile, feasible and if so, at what price? Swiss Academies Factsheets 13 (4). Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1409025

"The aim of the Paris Agreement is to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius, if possible even 1.5 degrees Celsius. Various scenarios show that very great efforts are necessary to achieve these goals through emission reduction measures alone. This motivates the search for additional solutions. Technical interventions in the climatesystem, often referred to by collective terms such as “geoengineering” or “climate intervention”, are therefore discussed."

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07.12.2018

# New Publications

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Rissman, J. (2018): Cement's role in a carbon-neutral future

Rissman, J. (2018): Cement's role in a carbon-neutral future. November 2018. Energy Innovation. Online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=forums&srcid=MDg3MzExNzQ5NTQ5MTYwODk5OTMBMTU1OTIzMzM1NTcwNDcwODA0MjgBa2x5SjhqS25CZ0FKATAuMQEBdjI&authuser=0.

"After its manufacture, cement naturally sequesters CO2 from the atmosphere in a process called
“carbonation.” Carbonation rates vary considerably with concrete properties, which differ by
world region. Globally, roughly a third of cement’s process emissions are re-absorbed within the
first two years, and over the course of decades, this share rises to 48%. Cement carbonation is
relevant on a global scale but has been omitted from national emissions inventories and global
estimates."

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07.12.2018

# New Publications

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Harwatt, H. (2018): Including animal to plant protein shifts in climate change mitigation policy

Harwatt, H. (2018): Including animal to plant protein shifts in climate change mitigation policy. A proposed three-step strategy. In: Climate Policy 18, S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1080/14693062.2018.1528965.

"This outlook article outlines why animal to plant-sourced protein shifts should be taken up by the Conference of the Parties (COP), and how they could feature as part of countries’ mitigation commitments under their updated Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to be adopted from 2020 onwards. The proposed framework includes an acknowledgment of ‘peak livestock’, followed by targets for large and rapid reductions in livestock numbers based on a combined ‘worst first’ and ‘best available food’ approach. Adequate support, including climate finance, is needed to facilitate countries in implementing animal to plant-sourced protein shifts."

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03.12.2018

# New Publications

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Nauer, P.; et al. (2018): Termite mounds mitigate half of termite methane emissions

Nauer, P.; Hutley, L.; Arndt, S. (2018): Termite mounds mitigate half of termite methane emissions. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809790115.

"Termites are important decomposers of plant material in tropical ecosystems, and thereby produce globally significant amounts of the greenhouse gas CH4. Here, we provide a mechanistic understanding of CH4 turnover in termite mounds to fill a long-standing knowledge gap. Using field measurements, we show that termite mounds oxidize, on average, half of the CH4 produced by termites before emission. This “hidden” biofilter mechanism is mediated by methanotrophic bacteria living in the mound walls or the soil beneath, for which internal termite-mound structures can facilitate CH4 transport. Process links within the mound stabilize the filter efficiency. Moreover, we estimate undisturbed termite biomass via CH4 emissions. This knowledge is crucial to reduce uncertainty in global termite-derived CH4 emissions."

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26.11.2018

# New Publications

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Gundersen, C.; et al. (2018): Growth response of environmental bacteria under exposure to nitramines from CO2-capture

Gundersen, C.; Andersen, T.; Vogt, R.; Allison, S. (2018): Growth response of environmental bacteria under exposure to nitramines from CO2-capture. In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 79, S. 248–251. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2018.11.003.

"Results from this study provide insight into important processes of bacterial response to nitramines that merit further investigation considering the ongoing implementation of CO2 capture technology."

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26.11.2018

# New Publications

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Smith, W.; et al. (2018): Stratospheric aerosol injection tactics and costs in the first 15 years of deployment

Smith, W.; Wagner, G. (2018): Stratospheric aerosol injection tactics and costs in the first 15 years of deployment. In: Environ. Res. Lett. 13 (12), S. 124001. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aae98d.

"We review the capabilities and costs of various lofting methods intended to deliver sulfates into the lower stratosphere. We lay out a future solar geoengineering deployment scenario of halving the increase in anthropogenic radiative forcing beginning 15 years hence, by deploying material to altitudes as high as ~20 km. After surveying an exhaustive list of potential deployment techniques, we settle upon an aircraft-based delivery system. Unlike the one prior comprehensive study on the topic (McClellan et al 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 034019), we conclude that no existing aircraft design—even with extensive modifications—can reasonably fulfill this mission."

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26.11.2018

# New Publications

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Gore, S.; et al. (2018): The potential environmental response to increasing ocean alkalinity for negative emissions

Gore, S.; Renforth, P.; Perkins, R. (2018): The potential environmental response to increasing ocean alkalinity for negative emissions. In: Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 47 (1), S. 199. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-018-9830-z.

"Increasing TA, however, did not significantly influence Corallina spp. primary productivity, respiration, or photophysiology. These results show that AOA may not be intrinsically detrimental for Corallina spp. and that AOA has the potential to lessen the impacts of ocean acidification. However, the experiment tested a single species within a controlled environment to constrain a specific unknown, the rate change of calcification, and additional work is required to understand the impact of AOA on other organisms, whole ecosystems, and the global carbon cycle."

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21.11.2018

# New Publications

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Harding, A.; et al. (2018): The economics of geoengineering

Harding, A.; Moreno-Cruz, J. (2018): The economics of geoengineering. In: Letcher T. (ed.): MANAGING GLOBAL WARMING. An interface of technology and human issues. [S.l.]: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS, S. 729–750.

"Geoengineering provides an alternative strategy from abatement to counteract or mask impacts of anthropogenic climate change. Geoengineering strategies can be classified as either solar radiation management (SRM) or carbon dioxide removal (CDR). SRM strategies are cheap, quick, but imperfect. CDR strategies are expensive, slow, but perfect and can generate negative net emissions. High abatement costs and shared global benefits have created a free-rider problem, but properties of geoengineering have the potential to disrupt that impasse. Geoengineering can also introduce new problems through additional risks and uncertainties. Even if the use of geoengineering is found to be optimal, strategic decision making may produce suboptimal outcomes. Over the past decade, research has examined if geoengineering is a serious alternative and when the benefits of using it outweigh the costs."

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21.11.2018

# New Publications

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Richter, R.; et al. (2018): Geoengineering. Sunlight reflection methods and negative emissions technologies for greenhouse gas removal

Richter, R.; Caillol, S.; Ming, T. (2018): Geoengineering. Sunlight reflection methods and negative emissions technologies for greenhouse gas removal. In: Letcher, T. (ed.): MANAGING GLOBAL WARMING. An interface of technology and human issues. [S.l.]: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS, p. 581–636.

"In order to keep global warming well below 2°C, the greenhouse gases emissions have to drastically drop by up to 70% till 2050, falling then to zero, and becoming negative by 2100. Negative emissions technologies or NETs are included in almost all scenarios of the integrated assessment models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to build the synthesis report that led to the Paris agreement. While intensive research is urgently needed to assess the numerous NETs proposed by scientists, others propose a technological fix to cool the Earth artificially and win time: those proposals are named geoengineering."

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