25.10.2021

# New Publications

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Buck, Holly Jean (2021): Ending Fossil Fuels. Why Net Zero is not Enough

Buck, Holly Jean (2021): Ending Fossil Fuels. Why Net Zero is not Enough. New York, NY: Verso.

"Ending the Fossil Fuel Industry is the only credible path for climate policy. Around the world, countries and companies are setting net-zero carbon emissions targets. But what will it mean if those targets are achieved? One possibility is that fossil fuel companies will continue to produce billions of tons of atmospheric CO2 while relying on a symbiotic industry to scrub the air clean. Focusing on emissions draws our attention away from the real problem:  the point of production. The fossil fuel industry must come to an end but will not depart willingly; governments must intervene. By embracing a politics of rural-urban coalitions and platform governance, climate advocates can build the political power needed to nationalize the fossil fuel industry and use its resources to draw carbon out of the atmosphere."

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25.10.2021

# New Publications

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Seyidov, Ibrahim (2021): CO2 capture by adsorption (master's thesis)

Seyidov, Ibrahim (2021): CO2 capture by adsorption. Master's Thesis. University of Stavanger, Stavanger/Norway. Faculty of Science and Technology. Available online at https://uis.brage.unit.no/uis-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2823473/no.uis%3Ainspera%3A78834591%3A56321194.pdf?sequence=1.

"In this thesis project, CO2 removal by the DAC method using a suitable adsorbent, namely, zeolite, is studied. Adsorption and desorption processes on the Z8 test plant are implemented by applying the temperature swing adsorption (TSA) principle. The test facility Z8 at Greencap Solutions includes a packed adsorbent bed and advanced instrumentation and control systems. It contains three adsorption columns, two of which are for water removal before the carbon capture. For moisture removal from flowing air, silica gel desiccant is deployed. The CO2 capture process is done by the flowing air over a packed bed of zeolite beads. CO2 initially gets captured at the bed inlet, and after the progression of the capture process, the zeolite beads near the packed bed inlet becomes saturated with CO2, and CO2 is captured further into the bed. Near the end of the capture process, CO2 is detected at the outlet of the packed bed, initially at very low concentrations. The concentration augments with time, and this is called breakthrough, and the CO2 concentration trends a breakthrough curve."

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25.10.2021

# New Publications

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Yue, Chao; et al. (2021): Insensitivity of mass loss of Icelandic Vatnajökull ice cap to solar geoengineering

Yue, Chao; Schmidt, Louise Steffensen; Zhao, Liyun; Wolovick, Michael; Moore, John C. (2021): Insensitivity of mass loss of Icelandic Vatnajökull ice cap to solar geoengineering. [in review]. In The Cryosphere Discuss. [preprint]. DOI: 10.5194/tc-2021-318.

"Geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) may reduce the mass loss from Vatnajökull ice cap (VIC), Iceland, by slowing surface temperature rise, despite relative increases in ocean heat flux brought by the Atlantic Meridional Circulation (AMOC). Although surface mass balance (SMB) is affected by the local climate, the sea level contribution is also dependent on ice dynamics. We use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to estimate the VIC mass balance under the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) RCP4.5, 8.5 and GeoMIP (Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project) G4 SAI scenarios during the period 1982–2089. The G4 scenario is based on the RCP4.5, but with additional 5 Tg yr−1 of SO2 injection to the lower stratosphere. By 2089, G4 reduces VIC mass loss from 16 % lost under RCP4.5, to 12 %. Ice dynamics are important for ice cap loss rates, increasing mass loss for RCP4.5 and G4 by 1/4 to 1/3 compared with excluding ice dynamics, but making no difference to mass loss difference under the scenarios. We find that VIC dynamics are remarkably insensitive to climate forcing partly because of AMOC compensation to SMB and low rates of iceberg calving making ocean forcing close to negligible. But the exceptionally high geothermal heat flow under parts of the ice cap which produces correspondingly high basal melt rates means that surface forcing changes are relatively less important than for glaciers with lower geothermal heat flow."

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22.10.2021

# New Publications

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Grant, Neil; et al. (2021): The policy implications of an uncertain carbon dioxide removal potential

Grant, Neil; Hawkes, Adam; Mittal, Shivika; Gambhir, Ajay (2021): The policy implications of an uncertain carbon dioxide removal potential. In Joule Volume 5, (10), pp. 2593–2605. Available online at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2021.09.004.

"Many low-carbon scenarios rely on carbon dioxide removal (CDR) to meet decarbonization goals. The feasibility of large-scale CDR deployment is highly uncertain, and existing scenarios have been criticized for overreliance on CDR. We conduct an expert survey on the feasible potential for CDR via bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, direct air capture and afforestation. We use the survey results to represent uncertainty in future CDR availability and explore the implications in an integrated assessment model."

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20.10.2021

# New Publications

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Stephens, Jennie C.; et al. (2021): The Dangers of Mainstreaming Solar Geoengineering: A critique of the National Academies Report

Stephens, Jennie C.; Kashwan, Prakash; McLaren, Duncan; Surprise, Kevin (2021): The Dangers of Mainstreaming Solar Geoengineering: A critique of the National Academies Report. In Environmental Politics 376 (3), pp. 1–10. DOI: 10.1080/09644016.2021.1989214.

"The U.S. National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) 2021 report on solar geoengineering research is a political intervention in global climate politics. Although the NASEM report explicitly acknowledges the risks of unilateral research without broad-based public participation and global governance, the report minimizes these concerns by recommending that the U.S. act swiftly to establish a publicly funded national research program. By providing details for how the research program should be designed, the report contradicts its own recommendations for an inclusive and international process. By mainstreaming solar geoengineering, the report risks increasing the likelihood of international conflict and unilateral deployment, and further exacerbates delays in prioritizing other climate actions. Instead of expanding research on global manipulation of the earth’s climate, the United States, like other countries around the world, should commit to multilateral, coordinated efforts to phase out fossil fuels, advance global climate action, and invest in climate justice."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Borth, Amanda C.; Nicholson, Simon (2021): A Deliberative Orientation to Governing Carbon Dioxide Removal: Actionable Recommendations for National-Level Action

Borth, Amanda C.; Nicholson, Simon (2021): A Deliberative Orientation to Governing Carbon Dioxide Removal: Actionable Recommendations for National-Level Action. In Front. Clim. 3. DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2021.684209

"Effective and legitimate governance of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) requires that the needs, interests, and perspectives of those liable to bear the burdens of CDR's effects be present in decision-making and oversight processes. This ideal has been widely recognized in prior academic work. How, though, in a practical sense, is this deliberative aspect of CDR governance to be understood? In this policy brief, we look at the future incorporation of carbon removal pledges into the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) of countries under the Paris Agreement, and we argue for and explore a deliberative orientation when it comes to the inclusion of CDR into country-level climate change response goals. The aim is to provide practical guidance on deliberation as a toolkit and set of practices."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Quaglia, Ilaria; et al. (2021): A novel approach to sulfate geoengineering with surface emissions of carbonyl sulfide

Quaglia, Ilaria; Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Kravitz, Ben (2021): A novel approach to sulfate geoengineering with surface emissions of carbonyl sulfide. (Preprint). In Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. DOI: 10.5194/acp-2021-813.

"Sulfate geoengineering (SG) methods based on lower stratospheric tropical injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been widely discussed in recent years, focusing on the direct and indirect effects they would have on the climate system. Here a potential alternative method is discussed, where sulfur emissions are located at the surface in the form of carbonyl sulfide (COS) gas. A time-dependent chemistry-climate model experiment is designed from year 2021 to 2055, assuming a 40 Tg-S/yr artificial global flux of COS, geographically distributed following the present day anthropogenic COS surface emissions. The budget of COS and sulfur species is discussed, as well as the effects of SG-COS on the stratospheric sulfate aerosol optical depth (Δ τ = 0.080 in years 2046–2055), aerosol effective radius (0.46 μm), surface SOx deposition (+8.7 %) and tropopause radiative forcing (RF) (−2.0 W/m2 for clear sky conditions and −1.5 W/m2 including the cloud adjustment). Indirect effects on ozone, methane and stratospheric water vapor are also considered, along with the COS direct contribution (with an overall gas phase global radiative forcing of +0.23 W/m2). According to our model results, the resulting net RF of this SG-COS experiment is −1.3 W/m2 for the year 2050, and it is comparable to the corresponding RF of −1.7 W/m2 obtained with a sustained injection of 4 Tg-S/yr in the tropical lower stratosphere in the form of SO2 (SG-SO2, able to produce a comparable increase of the sulfate aerosol optical depth). Significant changes of the stratospheric ozone response are found in SG-COS with respect to SG-SO2 (+4.9 DU versus +1.5 DU, globally). According to the model results, the resulting UVB perturbation at the surface accounts to −4.3 % as a global-annual average (versus −2.4 % in the SG-SO2 case), with a springtime Antarctic decrease of −2.7 % (versus a +5.8 % increase in the SG-SO2 experiment). Overall, we find that an increase in COS surface emission may be feasible, and produce a more latitudinally-uniform forcing without the need for the deployment of stratospheric aircrafts."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Mohan, Aniruddh; et al. (2021): UNFCCC must confront the political economy of net-negative emissions

Mohan, Aniruddh; Geden, Oliver; Fridahl, Mathias; Buck, Holly Jean; Peters, Glen P. (2021): UNFCCC must confront the political economy of net-negative emissions. In One Earth. DOI: 10.1016/j.oneear.2021.10.001.

"Recent demands by developing countries, like India, that developed countries need to reach net-negative emissions, must be negotiated seriously under the UNFCCC. Failure to acknowledge that limiting global average temperature rise to 1.5°C leaves very little carbon budget for equitable redistribution risks further ambiguity on how to achieve the Paris Agreement’s goals."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Swoboda, Philipp; et al. (2021): Remineralizing soils? The agricultural usage of silicate rock powders: A review

Swoboda, Philipp; Döring, Thomas F.; Hamer, Martin (2021): Remineralizing soils? The agricultural usage of silicate rock powders: A review. In Science of the Total Environment, p. 150976. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150976.

"Soil nutrient depletion threatens global food security and has been seriously underestimated for potassium (K) and several micronutrients. This is particularly the case for highly weathered soils in tropical countries, where classical soluble fertilizers are often not affordable or not accessible. One way to replenish macro- and micronutrients are ground silicate rock powders (SRPs). Rock forming silicate minerals contain most nutrients essential for higher plants, yet slow and inconsistent weathering rates have restricted their use in the past. Recent findings, however, challenge past agronomic objections which insufficiently addressed the factorial complexity of the weathering process. This review therefore first presents a framework with the most relevant factors for the weathering of SRPs through which several outcomes of prior studies can be explained."

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18.10.2021

# New Publications

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Liu, Xuebang; et al. (2021): European Carbon Uptake has not Benefited from Vegetation Greening

Liu, Xuebang; He, Bin; Guo, Lanlan; Huang, Ling; Yuan, Wenping; Chen, Xiuzhi et al. (2021): European Carbon Uptake has not Benefited from Vegetation Greening. In Geophysical Research Letters. DOI: 10.1029/2021GL094870.

"Substantial evidences indicate a widespread increase in European vegetation greenness since the 1980s due to CO2 fertilization effects (eCO2) and climate warming, but the impact of this process on the regional terrestrial carbon cycle has not been systematically evaluated. Using empirical models based on eddy covariance and process-based models, we found that the widespread greening did not contribute to an increase in European carbon uptake (decrease in net ecosystem exchange) with a non-significant trend from 2000 to 2018. The greening-associated increase in gross primary productivity (GPP) is offset by the simultaneous increase in ecosystem respiration (TER). Moreover, frequent heatwaves cause stronger reductions in GPP than TER, preventing the increase of carbon uptake. These results reveal the double-edged sword effect of warming on European ecosystems and will help constrain regional models."

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