November 2014

17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Storelvmo, T.; et al. (2014): Cirrus cloud seeding: a climate engineering mechanism with reduced side effects?

Storelvmo, T.; Boos, W. R.; Herger, N. (2014): Cirrus cloud seeding: a climate engineering mechanism with reduced side effects? In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0116.

"Here, we present a global modelling study of a so far understudied CEM, namely the seeding of cirrus clouds to reduce their lifetimes in the upper troposphere, and hence their greenhouse effect. Different from most CEMs, the intention of cirrus seeding is not to reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. This particular CEM rather targets the greenhouse effect, by reducing the trapping of infrared radiation by high clouds."

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Dykema, John A.; et al. (2014): Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering

Dykema, John A.; Keith, David W.; Anderson, James G.; Weisenstein, Debra K. (2014): Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment: a small-scale experiment to improve understanding of the risks of solar geoengineering. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0059.

"This experiment—provisionally titled the stratospheric controlled perturbation experiment—is under development and will only proceed with transparent and predominantly governmental funding and independent risk assessment. We describe the scientific and technical foundation for performing, under external oversight, small-scale experiments to quantify the risks posed by SRM to activation of halogen species and subsequent erosion of stratospheric ozone."

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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MacMartin, Douglas G.; et al. (2014): Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change

MacMartin, Douglas G.; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W. (2014): Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0134.

"Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature."

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Connolly, P.; et al. (2014): Factors determining the most efficient spray distribution for marine cloud brightening

Connolly, P.; McFiggans, G. B.; Wood, R.; Tisiamis, A. (2014): Factors determining the most efficient spray distribution for marine cloud brightening. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0056.

"We investigate the sensitivity of marine cloud brightening to the properties of the added salt particle distribution using a cloud parcel model, with an aim to address the question of, ‘what is the most efficient particle size distribution that will produce a desired cooling effect?’"

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Cooper, Garry; et al. (2014): Preliminary results for salt aerosol production intended for marine cloud brightening, using effervescent spray atomization

Cooper, Garry; Foster, Jack; Galbraith, Lee; Jain, Sudhanshu; Neukermans, Armand; Ormondo, Bob (2014): Preliminary results for salt aerosol production intended for marine cloud brightening, using effervescent spray atomization. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0055.

"The large-scale production of vast numbers of suitable salt nuclei and their upward launch is one of the main technological barriers to the experimental testing of marine cloud brightening (MCB). Very promising, though not definitive, results have been obtained using an adapted version of effervescent spray atomization."

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Latham, John; et al. (2014): Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack (2014): Marine cloud brightening: regional applications. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0053.

"This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1."

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Kravitz, Ben; et al. (2014): Process-model simulations of cloud albedo enhancement by aerosols in the Arctic

Kravitz, Ben; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Solomon, Amy B. (2014): Process-model simulations of cloud albedo enhancement by aerosols in the Arctic. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0052.

"A cloud-resolving model is used to simulate the effectiveness of Arctic marine cloud brightening via injection of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), either through geoengineering or other increased sources of Arctic aerosols. An updated cloud microphysical scheme is employed, with prognostic CCN and cloud particle numbers in both liquid and mixed-phase marine low clouds."

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Maalick, Z.; et al. (2014): Modelling artificial sea salt emission in large eddy simulations

Maalick, Z.; Korhonen, Hannele; Kokkola, Harri; Kühn, T.; Romakkaniemi, Sami (2014): Modelling artificial sea salt emission in large eddy simulations. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0051.

"We study the dispersion of sea salt particles from artificially injected sea spray at a cloud-resolving scale. Understanding of how different aerosol processes affect particle dispersion is crucial when designing emission sources for marine cloud brightening."

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17.11.2014

# New Publications

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Latham, John; et al. (2014): Introduction: Climate engineering: exploring nuances and consequences of deliberately altering the Earth's energy budget

Latham, John; Rasch, Philip J.; Launder, Brian Edward (2014): Introduction: Climate engineering: exploring nuances and consequences of deliberately altering the Earth's energy budget. In Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 372 (2031). DOI 10.1098/rsta.2014.0050.

"This Theme Issue explores details of (i) the fundamental physics and chemistry of what we (the editors) perceive to be the most feasible of the announced CE methods; (ii) possible field experiments that can be used to examine science's understanding of those processes and (iii) societal issues associated with the testing of CE and its impact on the planet. Indeed, the issue seeks to draw together research relevant to these disparate areas."

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17.11.2014

# Media

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RTTC: Geoengineering: Pumping iron into oceans could backfire

"Iron fertilisation of oceans stimulates carbon sucking plankton, but could also lead to rise in CO2 emitting sea-life"

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