23.06.2017

# New Publications

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Wood, Robert; et al. (2017): Could geoengineering research help answer one of the biggest questions in climate science?

Wood, Robert; Ackerman, Thomas; Rasch, Philip; Wanser, Kelly (2017): Could geoengineering research help answer one of the biggest questions in climate science? In: Earth's Future. DOI: 10.1002/2017EF000601.

"Observational studies show influences of aerosol on clouds, but correlations between aerosol and clouds are insufficient to constrain aerosol forcing because of the difficulty in separating aerosol and meteorological impacts. In this commentary, we argue that this current impasse may be overcome with the development of approaches to conduct control experiments whereby aerosol particle perturbations can be introduced into patches of marine low clouds in a systematic manner. Such cloud perturbation experiments constitute a fresh approach to climate science and would provide unprecedented data to untangle the effects of aerosol particles on cloud microphysics and the resulting reflection of solar radiation by clouds."

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18.06.2017

# Media

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The National UEA: Sunny outlook for rain-inducing cloud seeding, researchers forecast

"In Britain, projects have analysed whether cloud seeding could help to lower the temperatures of the sea surface, which could make hurricanes less powerful by starving them of energy. Perhaps more outlandish is the suggestion that cloud seeding could limit global warming. Among those interested in producing clouds that could reflect sunlight is Stephen Salter, emeritus professor of engineering design at the University of Edinburgh."

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14.06.2017

# New Publications

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Lauvset, Siv K.; et al. (2017): Climate engineering and the ocean. Effects on biogeochemistry and primary production

Lauvset, Siv K.; Tjiputra, Jerry; Muri, Helene (2017): Climate engineering and the ocean. Effects on biogeochemistry and primary production. In: Biogeosciences Discuss., S. 1–36. DOI: 10.5194/bg-2017-235

"Here we use an Earth System Model with interactive biogeochemistry to project future ocean biogeochemistry impacts from large-scale deployment of three different radiation management (RM) climate engineering (also known as geoengineering) methods: stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI), marine sky brightening (MSB), and cirrus cloud thinning (CCT). We apply RM such that the change in radiative forcing in the RCP8.5 emission scenario is reduced to the change in radiative forcing in the RCP4.5 scenario. The resulting global mean sea surface temperatures in the RM experiments are comparable to those in RCP4.5, but there are regional differences."

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07.06.2017

# New Publications

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Sugiyama, Masahiro; et al. (2017): The Asia-Pacific’s role in the emerging solar geoengineering debate

Sugiyama, Masahiro; Asayama, Shinichiro; Ishii, Atsushi; Kosugi, Takanobu; Moore, John C.; Lin, Jolene et al. (2017): The Asia-Pacific’s role in the emerging solar geoengineering debate. In: Climatic Change 23, S. 189. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-017-1994-0 

"Here, we report the summary of a 2016 workshop on the significance and challenges of international collaboration on climate engineering research with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region. Because of the region’s interest in benefits and risks of climate engineering, there is a potential synergy between impact research on anthropogenic global warming and that on solar radiation management. Local researchers in the region can help make progress toward better understanding of impacts of solar radiation management."

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02.06.2017

# New Publications

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Zhao, Liyun; et al. (2017): Glacier evolution in high-mountain Asia under stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection geoengineering

Zhao, Liyun; Yang, Yi; Cheng, Wei; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C. (2017): Glacier evolution in high-mountain Asia under stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection geoengineering. In: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17 (11), S. 6547–6564. DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-6547-2017 

"We examine this hypothesis for the glaciers in high-mountain Asia using a glacier mass balance model driven by climate simulations from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The G3 and G4 schemes specify use of stratospheric sulfate aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario for the 50 years between 2020 and 2069, and for a further 20 years after termination of geoengineering. We estimate and compare glacier volume loss for every glacier in the region using a glacier model based on surface mass balance parameterization under climate projections from three Earth system models under G3, five models under G4, and six models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5."

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02.06.2017

# New Publications

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Ahlm, Lars; et al. (2017): Marine cloud brightening – as effective without clouds

"Here we present results from coordinated simulations with three Earth system models (ESMs) participating in the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G4sea-salt experiment. Injection rates of accumulation mode sea spray aerosol particles over ocean between 30° N and 30° S are set in each model to generate a global-mean effective radiative forcing (ERF) of −2.0 W m−2 at the top of atmosphere. We find that the injection increases the cloud droplet number concentration in lower layers, reduces the cloud-top effective droplet radius, and increases the cloud optical depth over the injection area."

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20.05.2017

# New Publications

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Xia, Lili; et al. (2017): Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Tropospheric Ozone

Xia, Lili; Nowack, Peer J.; Tilmes, Simone; Robock, Alan (2017): Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on Tropospheric Ozone. In: Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., S. 1–38. DOI: 10.5194/acp-2017-434

"Using a version of the Community Earth System Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research that includes comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, we model both stratospheric sulfur injection and solar irradiance reduction schemes, with the aim of achieving equal levels of surface cooling relative to the Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0 scenario. This allows us to compare the impacts of sulfate aerosol and solar dimming on atmospheric ozone concentrations."

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11.05.2017

# New Publications

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Hong, Yu; et al. (2017): Impact of the GeoMIP G1 sunshade geoengineering experiment on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation

Hong, Yu; Moore, John C.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Ji, Duoying; Phipps, Steven J.; Lenton, Andrew et al. (2017): Impact of the GeoMIP G1 sunshade geoengineering experiment on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. In: Environ. Res. Lett. 12 (3). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa5fb8

"We analyze the multi-earth system model responses of ocean temperatures and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) under an idealized solar radiation management scenario (G1) from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. All models simulate warming of the northern North Atlantic relative to no geoengineering, despite geoengineering substantially offsetting the increases in mean global ocean temperatures. Increases in the temperature of the North Atlantic Ocean at the surface (~0.25 K) and at a depth of 500 m (~0.10 K) are mainly due to a 10 Wm−2 reduction of total heat flux from ocean to atmosphere."

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08.05.2017

# New Publications

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Ellery, Alex (2016): Low-Cost Space-Based Geoengineering. An Assessment Based on Self-Replicating Manufacturing of in-Situ Resources on the Moon

Ellery, Alex (2016): Low-Cost Space-Based Geoengineering. An Assessment Based on Self-Replicating Manufacturing of in-Situ Resources on the Moon. In: International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering 10 (2), S. 278–285.

"Here, a space-based approach is presented that is modest in cost, fully controllable and reversible, and acts as a natural spur to the development of solar power satellites over the longer term as a clean source of energy. The low-cost approach exploits self-replication technology which it is proposed may be enabled by 3D printing technology."

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08.05.2017

# Media

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Salon: Engineering the atmosphere: Is it possible? And would it prevent catastrophe, or cause it?

"It may be possible to alter the atmosphere and create "global dimming." But is the solution worse than the problem."

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