22.09.2017

# New Publications

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Burns, Wil; Nicholson, Simon (2017): Bioenergy and carbon capture with storage (BECCS). The prospects and challenges of an emerging climate policy response

Burns, Wil; Nicholson, Simon (2017): Bioenergy and carbon capture with storage (BECCS). The prospects and challenges of an emerging climate policy response. In J Environ Stud Sci 15 (2), p. 1360. DOI: 10.1007/s13412-017-0445-6.

"There is increasing impetus for large-scale deployment of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering approaches to help keep temperatures to below 2 °C, as provided for under the Paris Agreement. The primary option that has been discussed to date is Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). While BECCS could sequester very large amounts of carbon dioxide, it also poses substantial socio-economic risks to society, as well as threats to biodiversity. This essay suggests that a human rights-based approach can help to protect the interests of those who might be adversely impacted by BECCS deployment."

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22.09.2017

# New Publications

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Visioni, Daniele; et al. (2017): Sulfate geoengineering impact on methane transport and lifetime. Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina; Tilmes, Simone; Cionni, Irene; Di Genova, Glauco; Mancini, Eva (2017): Sulfate geoengineering impact on methane transport and lifetime. Results from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). In Atmos. Chem. Phys 17 (18), pp. 11209–11226. DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-11209-2017.

"Sulfate geoengineering (SG), made by sustained injection of SO2 in the tropical lower stratosphere, may impact the CH4 abundance through several photochemical mechanisms affecting tropospheric OH and hence the methane lifetime. (a) The reflection of incoming solar radiation increases the planetary albedo and cools the surface, with a tropospheric H2O decrease. (b) The tropospheric UV budget is upset by the additional aerosol scattering and stratospheric ozone changes: the net effect is meridionally not uniform, with a net decrease in the tropics, thus producing less tropospheric O(1D). (c) The extratropical downwelling motion from the lower stratosphere tends to increase the sulfate aerosol surface area density available for heterogeneous chemical reactions in the mid-to-upper troposphere, thus reducing the amount of NOx and O3 production. (d) The tropical lower stratosphere is warmed by solar and planetary radiation absorption by the aerosols."

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20.09.2017

# New Publications

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Flegal, Jane A.; Gupta, Aarti (2017): Evoking equity as a rationale for solar geoengineering research? Scrutinizing emerging expert visions of equity

Flegal, Jane A.; Gupta, Aarti (2017): Evoking equity as a rationale for solar geoengineering research? Scrutinizing emerging expert visions of equity. In Int Environ Agreements 7 (5), p. 311. DOI: 10.1007/s10784-017-9377-6.

"This paper examines how notions of equity are being evoked by expert advocates of more research into solar geoengineering. We trace how specific understandings of equity figure centrally—although not always explicitly—in these expert visions. We find that understandings of equity in such ‘‘vanguard visions’’ are narrowly conceived as epistemic challenges, answerable by (more) scientific analysis."

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18.09.2017

# New Publications

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Kemena, Tronje Peer; et al. (2017): Atmospheric feedbacks in North Africa from an irrigated, afforested Sahara

Kemena, Tronje Peer; Matthes, Katja; Martin, Thomas; Wahl, Sebastian; Oschlies, Andreas (2017): Atmospheric feedbacks in North Africa from an irrigated, afforested Sahara. In Clim Dyn 66, p. 57. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-017-3890-8.

"Here, we investigate changes in precipitation and circulation in response to Saharan large-scale afforestation and irrigation with NCAR’s CESM-WACCM Earth system model. Our model results show a Saharan temperature reduction by 6 K and weak precipitation enhancement by 267 mm/year over the Sahara."

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17.09.2017

# New Publications

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Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran (2017): Well below 2 °C: Mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes

Xu, Yangyang; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran (2017): Well below 2 °C: Mitigation strategies for avoiding dangerous to catastrophic climate changes. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618481114.

"We outline a three-lever strategy to limit the central warming below the dangerous level and the LPHI below the catastrophic level, both in the near term (<2050) and in the long term (2100): the carbon neutral (CN) lever to achieve zero net emissions of CO2, the super pollutant (SP) lever to mitigate short-lived climate pollutants, and the carbon extraction and sequestration (CES) lever to thin the atmospheric CO2 blanket. Pulling on both CN and SP levers and bending the emissions curve by 2020 can keep the central warming below dangerous levels."

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17.09.2017

# New Publications

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Himmelsbach, Raffael (2017): How scientists advising the European Commission on research priorities view climate engineering proposals

Himmelsbach, Raffael (2017): How scientists advising the European Commission on research priorities view climate engineering proposals. In sci public policy. DOI: 10.1093/scipol/scx053.

"This study contributes to a growing body of research that studies how different societal actors view climate engineering (CE) in an effort to ‘open up’ received framings and make them amenable to deliberations. [...] Drawing on fifteen interviews, the study explores how scientists who advise the European Commission on research funding priorities regarding climate change and sustainability view CE. They considered CE as treating the symptoms rather than the causes of climate change, as interfering in complex and unpredictable natural systems, and as engendering questions of distributive justice."

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12.09.2017

# New Publications

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Talberg, Anita; et al. (2017): Geoengineering governance-by-default. An earth system governance perspective

Talberg, Anita; Christoff, Peter; Thomas, Sebastian; Karoly, David (2017): Geoengineering governance-by-default. An earth system governance perspective. In Int Environ Agreements 54 (03), p. 421. DOI: 10.1007/s10784-017-9374-9.

"This paper describes and analyses the geoengineering governance landscape that has developed in the absence of explicit geoengineering regulation. An Earth System Governance perspective provides insight into the formation of norms resulting from an overlap in international treaties and from the actions of engaged non-state agents. Specifically, the paper explores the instruments and actors having effect in existing formal and informal geoengineering governance mechanisms. It finds that geoengineering is subject to a form of ‘governance-by-default’."

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11.09.2017

# New Publications

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Harrison, Daniel P. (2017): Global negative emissions capacity of ocean macronutrient fertilization

Harrison, Daniel P. (2017): Global negative emissions capacity of ocean macronutrient fertilization. In Environ. Res. Lett. 12 (3), p. 35001. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa5ef5.

"Utilizing global datasets of oceanographic field measurements, and output from a high resolution global circulation model, the current study provides the first comprehensive assessment of the global potential for carbon sequestration from ocean macronutrient fertilization (OMF). Sufficient excess phosphate exists outside the iron limited surface ocean to support once-off sequestration of up to 3.6 Pg C by fertilization with nitrogen. Ongoing maximum capacity of nitrogen only fertilization is estimated at 0.7 ± 0.4 Pg C yr−1."

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01.09.2017

# New Publications

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Richler, Jenn (2017): Geoengineering. Perceived controllability

Richler, Jenn (2017): Geoengineering. Perceived controllability. In Nature Climate change 7 (9), p. 624. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3384.

"Scientists and engineers are beginning to assess the feasibility of geoengineering interventions, such as removing CO2 from the atmosphere, to complement emissions reductions to moderate climate change. Because these efforts rely on new and unfamiliar technology they have attracted public scrutiny. However, it is not…"

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01.09.2017

# New Publications

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Keith, David W.; et al. (2017): Solar geoengineering reduces atmospheric carbon burden

Keith, David W.; Wagner, Gernot; Zabel, Claire L. (2017): Solar geoengineering reduces atmospheric carbon burden. In Nature Climate change 7 (9), pp. 617–619. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate3376.

"Solar geoengineering is no substitute for cutting emissions, but could nevertheless help reduce the atmospheric carbon burden. In the extreme, if solar geoengineering were used to hold radiative forcing constant under RCP8.5, the carbon burden may be reduced by ~100 GTC, equivalent to 12–26% of twenty-first-century emissions at a cost of under US$0.5 per tCO2."

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